There’s a frequently asked question on certain forums along the lines of “how will I die of my Neuroendocrine Cancer?“. Personally, I find it slightly unsettling, although I can understand why certain people might ask. I accept it as a question but I believe there are times and places for it and that a public forum is not the place to have it. The vast majority of people do not go to a forum to find out how they might die. I can see a list of search terms for hits on my blog site (I don’t know who searched just what was searched). Would you believe this also appears from time to time? I just hope they found this post!
I don’t tend to dabble in death – it’s just quite difficult to talk about it in a blog which is part designed to be positive and offer hope. So why am I talking about death inside this positive blog? Well, apart from thinking the thread mentioned above might scare readers who are already frightened by their diagnosis, perhaps quite recent, and do not want the answer to this question, I also think it might be perceived as a bit ‘glass half empty’. Both of these things are not good, thus why I believe the question should be between the person wanting to know and a specialist.
I also believe the “how will I die of Neuroendocrine Cancer” question is a really big assumption about the cause of death. Why? There’s an increasing chance a person with cancer today will die of something else. For example, in UK today, more than one in three (35%) of those people who die having had a cancer diagnosis will now die from other causes. This is up from one in five (21%) 20 years ago. By 2020 this will improve further to almost four in 10 people (38%). This means the number of people who get cancer but die from another cause has doubled over the past 20 years. The cancer story is changing and a quick bit of research confirms it’s changing on a worldwide basis.
On a similar subject, for those looking online for NETs prognostic data, I offer the following advice:
Be careful surfing the internet, some sites have NETs prognostic data from the ark.
Even if you find the very latest data, interpretation is difficult due to the heterogeneity of NETs, different stages and grades, comorbidities, age and no doubt many other factors. Please also note the ‘very latest’ data is probably a few years old.
It’s a difficult question even for a specialist.
I’ve lost count of the number of people who have told their story about being told a period of time from their specialist (including use of the word ‘terminal’) and they are still here a significant period after, in some cases 10 x what their specialist said.
AND DEFINITELY Check out the comments on this Facebook post – here (over 400 people like this post so far – so press that button!)
Firstly as I have an international audience, I thought I’d introduce what might not be a well-known British trait – the ‘stiff upper lip’. For the uninitiated, I’m defining this as “One who displays fortitude in the face of adversity and within that, exercises great self-restraint in the expression of emotion, rarely asks for help and just suffers in silence.” That perfectly explains the accompanying graphic! That definition also covers the two key themes above, talking about it and managing the illness.
There appears to be a lessening of this way of thinking in the past 30 or so years. However, I think this trait remains prevalent, particularly (but not exclusively) in the more senior citizens. I’m not convinced that a stiff upper lip is something confined to the UK as I learn how some of my overseas friends cope. I also think it might be more prevalent in men, you just need to look at the gender split on cancer forums to see that.
As someone with a cancer blog which has fielded a quarter of a million views, I can hardly be accused of keeping quiet about my cancer (edit: now nearly a million).However, that is a relatively new thing since diagnosis in 2010. Following that diagnosis, I kept my cancer ‘secret’ to close family, a few selected friends and only those at work who actually needed to know for administrative purposes. As I said in my blog “Sorry I’m out of service”, …..the image of ‘invincibility’ was important to me at that time and I thought I could deal with it and still have the same ‘look and feel’ in my life as I had before. Someone suggested that I should go home one day and my response was “the only way I’m leaving this building early is in an ambulance. Foolish? Absolutely (but in hindsight of course!). It eventually became impossible to find the same ‘look and feel’ and it took me 3 years to come out of my cancer closet.
I suppose people have such varying personal circumstances and different characters will deal with managing their illness in different ways. Some rely totally on their medical team (I get this but I wouldn’t rely 100% on this strategy). Some rely on support groups. For example, take patient forums where there is a broad range of patient engagement types. Some people talk a lot about their issues, every cough, sneeze and ache is a worry. I suspect they are simply looking for support or they might be frightened and worried about a particular problem. Perhaps some are more reserved or they already have enough support elsewhere. Maybe they simply get some support by reading about the experiences of others with the knowledge they have that safety net if they felt they ever needed to ask a question. Of course, when you compare the ‘guesstimate’ of NET patients vs online patient forum numbers, the vast majority of NET patients are not on a forum. Interestingly, I have many people following my blog on Facebook, twitter and WordPress, who are not on any forum – in some ways, this might be a good option for some. That said, I’d like to think my own groupoffers a good service.
I find myself managing my illness on a day to day basis. I like to assess any issues carefully to avoid wasting other people’s time and generating unnecessary alarm and drama. But do I have a stiff upper lip? Yes – I think I’ve always been like that and the ‘going home in an ambulance’ statement above confirms that. However, I suspect I’m now more of a realist i.e. I’m aware of the signs, aware of the risks and I know there’s a possibility of me becoming ill in a short space of time. I need to avoid that. Sometimes I have a ‘battle’ with my ‘stiff upper lip’ but it’s normally a question of judgement and risk assessment. Key questions I ask myself are: ‘Is what I’m experiencing normal’ and if so ‘it is dangerous’. If it’s not normal, ‘is it connected to NETs’ or ‘is it a regular illness’. I’m also lucky to have a managed NET surveillance regime thanks to my local NET MDT and Centre of Excellence.
I remain alert but I won’t normally ‘suffer in silence’ for too long. Please don’t either.
One of the most frequent posts on forums is about the Patient-Doctor relationship (or occasionally a lack of it…..). Personally, I have a lot of time and respect for all medical staff and I suspect that has been influenced by my general life experience, perhaps cemented since my diagnosis of metastatic Neuroendocrine Cancer in 2010. The vast majority of people tend to trust Doctors and I’m a bit old-fashioned in this respect. If you have metastatic Neuroendocrine Cancer, you see medical staff a lot! Relationships and communication can therefore become more important than ever.
However, people with less common conditions can perhaps be more difficult to satisfy. A ‘generalist’ doctor (i.e. a GP or PCP) is unlikely to be very knowledgeable about every single condition. Even at secondary care level, certain less common conditions still need dedicated specialists and these services may not be located at every hospital. Clearly with Neuroendocrine Cancer, the optimum scenario is to be treated at a NET specialist centre or at least be overseen by them. However, these can be thin on the ground and/or the medical system in place is not able to provide access to these experts. Geography may also be playing a part causing further anxiety and this is not helpful if you are already fighting cancer. Communications and relationships between patients and doctors can therefore be more difficult even with the right diagnosis.
I see so many issues on forums ranging from people who are simply looking for a specialist to people who still don’t think they got the right treatment from the specialist they eventually found. Emotions directed at physicians range from ‘god-like adulation’ to offers of violence! If you only looked at forums, you would believe there are only a handful of NET Cancer specialists when in fact there are many more than this. Check out the most up to date lists inside this article – click here.
I know from talking to other patients that some have not had the ideal experience with their doctor(s). Even those who found a NET specialist report the odd issue and feelings of unhappiness. I never cite these issues publicly, in particular the hospital or the doctor, because for every one of these stories, you can find dozens of good patient experiences with the same hospital and doctor.
It’s a really complex area and it can be compounded by the health system in place but many things are common across the board. One of the reasons making it complex is that it can be about relationships and communication – both ways! Thus why I was interested to read an article by a physician who listed a number of tips for patients which I think are as relevant to Neuroendocrine Cancer as they are to other conditions (……in fact some more so!). Relationships and communication will not cure or reduce your cancer; or debulk your tumours – well not directly ….. but it can help along the way. And although the article appears to be written in a post diagnosis context, some of it is also relevant to pre-diagnosis.
The top 8 tips are:
Know your own communication style and preference for informing and being informed. This is an interesting point which I hadn’t really thought about. That said, some of the response to this tip can be addressed in some of the other tips. I guess in hindsight, asking my doctors not to hide stuff and to just “hit me with it” is an indication that I had set my preferences early on. I wanted to know the real problems I was facing. Additionally, my Oncologist knows I like copies of all tests and reports and he obliges. I always take notes.
Think about how you prefer to hear important health information such as the results of a biopsy or a scan and then convey that to your doctor or nurse. I think this is partly addressed above. I see my MDT face to face every 6 months but if it is for bad news, I would certainly like some notice in order that I can be accompanied by my wife. I don’t think I’ve made that clear enough so an action for me here.
Prioritize your concerns, if you present your doctor with a very long list of questions or symptoms at the very end of the visit, it’s quite likely that you will both end up frustrated. I have experienced this issue many times but gradually I’ve learned how to improve this form of communication. It’s easy to forget your physician has other patients and only has a finite time to spend on your case. I now send my Oncologist a summary email with my top 3 or 4 concerns and I do this around 2 weeks prior to each appointment. I copy in the specialist nurse who is mostly already aware via frequent communications. This not only gives them some time to read but also prevents the scenario above. It’s starting to work better.
Make your needs known, doctors and nurses cannot read your mind. This is an absolutely key tip as far as I’m concerned. I believe the patient is the most underused person in healthcare. Patients have a part to play in their own diagnosis phase and this continues all the way through to ongoing treatment (including wary of the doctor). Patients must have a voice and patients must use this voice to describe what’s going wrong with their body and what’s troubling their mind. Doctors and nurses cannot read your mind but they must listen to your voice.
Trust the clinicians involved in your care and think of them as partners. I think all clinicians want us to trust them after all they’ve done the 10 years training and we have not! However, with less than common conditions, I suspect patients probably need to be wary and advocate more. I think of myself as a partner (part of the MDT for the period of my consultation) and so by default, I already think this way.
Beware of the common trap of thinking in terms of all or nothing or rushing to conclusions. This is an interesting one for incurable but treatable cancers. I think with incurable Neuroendocrine Cancer, you need to be prepared for a long haul and the occasional bump along the windy road. Services and inspections will need to be done and tyres will need to be changed. It’s not a perfect journey and don’t trust the SatNav!
Share the burden of not knowing how things will ultimately work out. This is a difficult one and I suspect each person will have their own concerns and their own way of dealing with it. I’m thinking this might be more important for younger patients who have young families to look after. I’m a ‘glass half full’ person so it’s an awkward one for me. I guess as I’m feeling confident I’m not leaving anytime soon, it’s something still stuck in the back of my mind.
Find ways of being at ease, even during frightening or turbulent situations. Easier said than done! Again, we all have different ways of dealing with our situations but I do believe if you have addressed all the tips above, this should make it easier. I also think that learning a lot more about your disease really helps to communicate about it better.
I’m often shocked to hear that people ‘fire’ their doctor but I guess if you are paying out of your own pocket, it can be an apt word to use! Clearly if the service you receive is not working to your expectations, then a move might be beneficial for both parties. It’s a big decision though and for those who have moved on, I sincerely hope the grass has been greener on the other side.
Despite learning early on in my journey that nutrition was going to be a challenge, I sensed the initial focus of my treatment was on getting rid of as much tumour bulk as possible and then controlling (stabilising) the disease through monitoring and surveillance. Clearly I’m happy about that! However, it eventually became clear that the impact of this constant treatment/controlling, meant that some of the less obvious signs of nutrient deficiency were potentially being missed.
This is one of the key reasons I believe there is a gap in specialist follow on support for Neuroendocrine Cancer patients – at least in the UK. As I said in my article ‘I may be stable but I still need support‘, Neuroendocrine Cancer patients need specialist dietary and nutritional advice covering a much wider spectrum than most cancer patients. In this post, I also suggested that there does not appear to be enough research or support into these issues leaving many patients working out their own strategies post diagnosis and treatment. However, I was delighted to see a study published in 2016 indicating a recognition of this problem. The paper (click here), which was sponsored by ENETS Centres of Excellence (CoE) in UK, concluded that “Given the frequency of patients identified at malnutrition risk using MUST (malnutrition universal screening tool) in our relatively large and diverse GEP-NET cohort and the clinical implications of detecting malnutrition early, we recommend routine use of malnutrition screening in all patients with GEP-NET, and particularly in patients who are treated with long-acting somatostatin analogues“. This amplifies the advice Tara has given many NET Patients in UK that regular blood checks of key vitamins at risk, particularly B12 and the fat-soluble ADEK (see more on this below). Even those patients with very healthy diets can still succumb to these issues. Looking at the vast number of forum posts on this subject, perhaps this is also a problem outside of UK?
This is not just about what foods to avoid or eat in moderation, this is also about:
a. receipt of post surgical/treatment advice,
b. early knowledge and countermeasures for the side effects of ongoing and long-term treatment,
c. the intelligent use of supplements where they are applicable,
d. how to combat, treat or offset malabsorption and nutrient deficiencies caused by the complexities of their cancer and any treatment given. Check out Article 2in this series which specfically looks at Malabsorption.
e. how to deconflict these side effects with those of the various syndromes which can sometimes accompany Neuroendocrine Cancer.
In early 2011, shortly after my first major surgery and commencement of my monthly somatostatin analogue – Lanreotide (Somatuline), I started to notice a number of issues developing. I carefully searched for clues and I could see that some of my issues pointed to side effects from treatment (both from surgery and somatostatin analogues) and potentially some vitamin and mineral deficiencies. I had already been taking an ‘over 50‘ multivitamin tablet for some time before I was diagnosed and assumed I was already covered. Having analysed the issues I was experiencing at the time, I was specifically targeting B12 and my initial test score was just in range (i.e borderline). Surprisingly my multivitamin B12 content was 400% RDA – yet my blood test was borderline. That might explain some of the fatigue!
I later attended a fantastic patient day where I was introduced to the UK’s solitary Neuroendocrine Cancer specialist dietician (this was in 2012, things are improving in 2019). This subject was a revelation for me and I was alerted to the possibility that other vitamins and minerals could be at risk due to a combination of surgery and/or treatment, in particular the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, K. Following a hastily arranged series of blood tests, I found my Vitamin D was insufficient and this has now been resolved through additional supplementation and more effort to absorb it through conventional means (i.e. the sun!).
I’m now on top of this issue through learning, understanding and basically becoming my own advocate. Please note this is a massive subject and the amount of information on the internet can be overwhelming. Additionally, it is not an exact science and not everything will apply to every person. Personally I would stick to sites where the advice is given by a nutritionist/dietician who is also experienced with Neuroendocrine Cancer.
Nutrition issues can be exacerbated by treatment, in particular surgery. Often the advice can differ immediately after surgery and then downstream when the part of the body treated by surgery has healed, basically things can get back to some normality. Nutritional surveillance is important going forward though as other non-surgical treatments can present challenges. For those requiring advice following surgery, this rather excellent booklet from NET Patient Foundation in collaboration from the Royal Free Hospital in London (ENETS Centre of Excellence. It’s been written by Tara Whyand (see below) and is a great starting point – click here to read – Gut-surgery-How-diet-can-help
I’m very thankful to Tara Whyand who is an Oncology Dietician specialising in Neuroendocrine Cancer at the Royal Free Hospital. Her research, advice and raising of these issues at patient meetings has been invaluable. As one of the top NET Nutrition specialists in the UK, she gets a lot of queries! If you’re on twitter, you can follow Tara here: https://twitter.com/LadyNourish
Even though I’ve had to limit this post to vitamin and mineral issues, it’s still much larger than what I normally produce. Consequently, I’m planning further blogs on associated and overlapping subjects.
In the meantime, I’m very grateful to Tara for the input below:
NET Patients are at Risk of Deficiencies
Over the past few years I have become more aware of vitamin and mineral deficiencies in NET patients, and the impact these can have on health and quality of life. When the focus of NET treatment is on eradicating and controlling the disease, the impact on nutrition, apart from obvious weight loss, means less obvious signs of micronutrient deficiency can be missed. Below is a list of nutrients which are those most at risk of becoming low enough to cause problems. It is important that the treatment of these deficiencies is discussed with your NET team so they can prescribe suitable doses.
Magnesium blood tests are an unreliable measurement and there is no way of accurately measuring body stores.
Magnesium is a vital mineral required for the function structure of the human body. Prevalence of low blood magnesium levels varies from 7% to 11% in hospital patients and clinical magnesium deficiency is frequently observed in conditions causing steatorrhoea or severe chronic diarrhoea, and the degree of magnesium depletion correlates with the severity of diarrhoea and stool fat content. Signs of deficiency include low energy, fatigue, weakness, PMS, menstrual cramps, hormonal imbalance, insomnia, bone mineral density loss, muscle tension, spasms, cramps, cardiac arrhythmia, headaches, anxiousness, nervousness and irritability. If you think you could be deficient you must ensure you consume enough magnesium (375mg per day).
Zinc levels are best measured using a combination of blood serum and urinary excretion levels.
Zinc affects the human body through a large number of channels affecting not only cell division, protein synthesis and growth, but also gene expression and a variety of reproductive and immunologic functions. Zinc deficiency is common in undernourished patients. The absence of sufficient levels of zinc in the human body is associated with a large number of adverse health outcomes, including lower immunity, alopecia, tiredness and impaired wound healing. If you are at risk of deficiency make sure you consume enough zinc (10mg per day). If you are clinically deficient your diet must be supplemented.
Iron deficiency (hypoferremia) and clinical iron deficiency anaemia is easily measured with a simple blood test.
Iron is essential for the formation of haemoglobin in red blood cells which binds oxygen and transports it around the body. Iron is also an essential component in many enzyme reactions and has an important role in the immune system. In addition, it is required for normal energy metabolism and for the metabolism of drugs and foreign substances that need to be removed from the body. Lower iron levels are common in NET patients and there may be several causes of this. Poor iron intake, dietary iron absorption-regulating factors (e.g., vitamin C and copper) or iron distribution factors (e.g. vitamin A), are believed to be causes. Patients may also lose iron due to blood loss from the bowel in intestinal or rectal NETs or after surgery. It may also be possible that diarrhoea in NETs causes malabsorption of iron in the intestine too. Symptoms include tiredness, paleness, thinning hair, impaired immunity and feeling breathless. If you are at risk of having lower than normal iron levels you must consume enough iron (14mg per day). If you are clinically deficient your diet must be supplemented.
Diagnosis of copper deficiency is based on low serum levels of copper and ceruloplasmin, although these tests are not always reliable.
Copper is an essential trace mineral that is required for human health. This micronutrient is necessary for the proper growth, development, and maintenance of bone, connective tissue, brain, heart, and many other body organs. Copper is involved in the formation of red blood cells, the absorption and utilization of iron and the synthesis and release of life-sustaining proteins and enzymes. These enzymes in turn produce cellular energy and regulate nerve transmission, blood clotting, and oxygen transport. Copper stimulates the immune system to fight infections, to repair injured tissues, and to promote healing. Copper also has an antioxidant effect against oxidative stress. Gastrointestinal surgery can lead to malabsorption of copper and other micronutrients. Long term malabsorption of food from the gastrointestinal tract can also lead to copper deficiency which puts many more NET patients at risk. Symptoms of deficiency include neutropenia, impaired bone calcification, myelopathy, neuropathy, and hypochromic anemia not responsive to iron supplements. If you are at risk of lower than normal levels of copper you must consume enough (1mg per day). If you are clinically deficient your diet must be supplemented.
Selenium levels are measured using plasma selenium blood tests.
Selenium is an essential micronutrient in humans and functions in many biochemical pathways. Proposed antioxidant pathways of selenium, include the repair and prevention of oxidative damage, alteration of metabolism of carcinogenic agents, regulation of immune response and repair of DNA damage. It works alongside vitamin E and selenium levels are often low during cancer and in patients on long-term intravenous nutrition. Symptoms of deficiency include muscle pain and tenderness. Everyone is required to have 55 µg a day and if you are clinically deficient your diet will need to be supplemented.
Water Soluble Vitamins
Thiamine is not usually tested as diagnosis is based on symptoms and a trial of thiamine supplementation. If a doctor is unsure, they will measure erythrocyte transketolase activity and run a 24-hour urinary thiamine excretion.
Vitamin B1, or thiamine is an essential B vitamin which is required for the breakdown of sugars and amino acids. Absorption of thiamine is greatest in the jejunum and ileum, but it is it is inhibited by alcohol consumption and by folic acid deficiency. The most common cause of deficiency is alcoholism, although states causing malabsorption such as gastrointestinal surgery are also a factor. It may also be possible that diarrhoea causing malabsorption of nutrients from the intestines could put a patient at NET patient at risk of deficiency. Symptoms initially include fatigue, irritability, poor memory, sleep disturbances, anorexia, and abdominal discomfort. When more severe it involves hospitalisation due the effects on the nervous system and heart.
Patients who are at risk of deficiency must consume enough thiamine (1.1mg thiamine per day). Patients who are deficient must have their diet supplemented.
Niacin is not usually tested but may be useful to confirm diagnosis using urinary excretion of N 1 -methylnicotinamide (NMN).
Niacin also refers to both nicotinamide and nicotinic acid and is required as part of the way energy is produced by the body. When carcinoid tumours produce hormones such as serotonin, these patients suffer from carcinoid syndrome. These are symptoms such as flushing, diarrhoea, wheezing and damage to heart valves (carcinoid heart disease). When the tumours make large amounts of serotonin, the amino acid, tryptophan, gets used up. When tryptophan stores are low it cannot be converted into the vitamin niacin, which may then cause deficiency. In a NET study, 28 per cent of patients with gastroenteropancreatic /carcinoid tumours and carcinoid syndrome were niacin deficient. Patients without carcinoid syndrome did not have niacin deficiency. Niacin deficiency can also be caused by cirrhosis and diarrhea. Niacin deficiency leads to pellagra, the typical symptoms of which are diarrhea, dermatitis and dementia. All patients with carcinoid syndrome must take a nicotinamide containing supplement to treat and prevent this deficiency and it is a good idea to get enough niacin if you are at risk of deficiency for other reasons (approximately 40mg nicotinamide a day). Niacin or niacinamide may cause flushing!
Vitamin levels are not usually tested but measurement of serum pyridoxal phosphate is most commonly used.
Vitamin B6 comprises 3 forms: pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine, and has a central role in the metabolism of amino acids. It is involved in the breaking down of glycogen into glucose. In addition, vitamin B6 plays a key role in metabolism of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and serotonin, and it ensures efficient functioning of the immune system and making of red blood cells. The symptoms of vitamin B6 deficiency are local inflammation of the skin and dysfunction of the nervous system. Some NET patients may be at risk of deficiency due to malabsorption in the intestines and undernutrition. If you are worried you may have lower levels make sure you consume enough (1.4mg per day). If you are deficient you diet must be supplemented.
Serum folate reflects folate status unless intake has recently increased or decreased.
Folic acid is the synthetic form of folate. It is used in supplements and for food fortification. Folate functions together with vitamin B12 to form healthy red blood cells. It is also required for normal cell division and the normal structure of the nervous system. It is possible to become deficient in folate due to malabsorption of nutrients in the intestine through diarrhoea and other malabsorption states such as surgery. If you are worried you may be at risk of deficiency ensure you get enough folate/folic acid (200 µg per day). If you are deficient your diet will need to be supplemented.
Vitamin B 12 must be measured alongside complete blood count and folate levels.
Cobalamin plays a role in DNA synthesis and regenerates methionine for protein synthesis. Low vitamin B12 levels have been observed in NET patients receiving somatostatin analogues and therefore monitoring of vitamin B12 levels is important during long-term therapy. Vitamin B12 deficiency has also been found to be common in type 1 gastric carcinoid NETs after Antrectomy and/or Gastrectomy. Patients with diseased or surgically removed ileums (end of the small bowel) and those who have bacterial overgrowth in the area are also at risk of Vitamin B12deficiency. In addition, patients with insufficient pancreatic enzymes are also at risk of vitamin B12deficiency as they play a key role in the steps before absorption occurs. If you are worried your levels may be low you must consume 2.5µg a day. If you are clinically deficient your diet must be supplemented, usually with regular injections.
Fat Soluble Vitamins
A, D, E and K
Somatostatin Analogues (Octreotide and Lanreotide) based injection treatments for a variety of NETs may cause deficiencies in some vitamins. This is because they may alter absorption of dietary fats which contain vitamins. Enzymes are usually released from the pancreas to break down nutrients such as fat, but pancreatic enzyme release can be reduced when somatostatin analogue medications are given. When fat is not broken down properly, stools become pale/yellow, loose, greasy, foul-smelling or frothy and floating –‘steatorrhoea’. Your precious vitamins therefore end up in your toilet instead. One study followed 54 patients, who mostly had carcinoid tumours and were on somatostatin analogues for at least 18 months. It found that only one fifth of patients had visible steatorrhoea, but 6% were deficient in vitamin A, 28% deficient in D, 58% in E and 63% in K1. This shows that even if you don’t have visible signs of steatorrhoea, you may still be deficient in one or more vitamin!
Serum retinol blood tests are the means of measuring vitamin A in the body.
Vitamin A is a fat soluble vitamin absorbed through the small intestine either as retinol or carotene, and then converted to retinyl palmitate which is stored in the liver. Normally the liver contains a 2 year store of vitamin A. Vitamin A deficiency has a wide range of ocular manifestations including conjunctival and corneal xerosis, keratomalacia, retinopathy, visual loss, and nyctalopia, or night blindness, which is the earliest and most common symptom. If you are worried about having low levels make sure you consume enough (800 µg per day). If you are deficient your diet will need to be supplemented.
D 3 –cholecalciferol
Your 25(OH)D levels can be measured with a simple blood test.
Cholecalciferol is a nutrient and hormone. Recent evidence for the non-skeletal effects (those apart from bone mineralisation) of vitamin D, coupled with recognition that vitamin D deficiency is common, has revived interest in this vitamin. Low vitamin D levels are linked to higher rates of several other cancers. Vitamin D is produced by skin exposed to ultraviolet B radiation and obtained from dietary sources, including supplements. Persons commonly at risk for vitamin D deficiency include those with inadequate sun exposure, limited oral intake, or impaired intestinal absorption from the diet (as above). The most recent evidence actually points out that the sun is not to be relied on as a source of vitamin D and oral intake is important. If you are worried you may have low levels you must speak with your doctor to arrange supplementation with or without a test.
Vitamin E can be tested by looking at the α-tocopherol level or ratio of serum α-tocopherol to serum lipids.
Vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant that can be regenerated by vitamin C after oxidation in the human body. It prevents damage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in cellular membranes. Signs of deficiency include dry skin and neurological symptoms. If you think you may have low levels make sure you consume enough (12mg per day). If you are deficient your diet will have to be supplemented.
Vitamin K deficiency can be measured by looking at the prothrombin time.
Phylloquinone is required for blood clotting and deficiency results in bleeding. Since this deficiency is common in patients with fat malabsorption due to severe liver disease and somatostatin analogue treatment it is important that you consume enough (75 µg per day). If you are clinically deficient you will need to receive supplementation.
Of course these are only the nutrients which are at risk of deficiency, there are many other nutrients and botanical extracts which may help patients with NET’s. It is vital that nutrition is considered for every patient with a NET and we hope one day each NET unit will have NET Specialist Dietitian to make this possible.
Links to the other nutrition blogs:
Article 2 – Gastrointestinal Malabsorption. Overlapping slightly into Article 1, this covers the main side effects of certain NET surgical procedures and other mainstream treatments. Input from Tara Whyand.
Article 3 – Gut Health. This followed on from the first two blogs looking specifically at the issues caused by small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) as a consequence of cancer treatment. Also discussed probiotics. Input from Tara Whyand.
Article 4 – Food for Thought. This is a blog about why certain types of foods or particular foodstuffs can cause issues.
Withincurable but treatable cancers such as metastatic Neuroendocrine Cancer, ‘Stable‘ is normally not the end of the matter, for many there is still a long road ahead and that road may not be straight or flat. The long road may be considered an advantage by some given that with very aggressive cancers, incurable can frequently mean terminal. The surveillance must continue in case of a recurrence.
It’s important to understand that ‘Stable‘ simply means the disease is “under control” with tests and scans showing the cancer hasn’t changed over time.
One of the disadvantages of ‘incurable but treatable‘ is that Quality of Life (QoL) can in many cases be compromised due to the consequences of cancer and /or treatment. However, if specialist treatment, surveillance and support are all in place, things can gradually be adjusted to a new and hopefully tolerable ‘normal’.
I also believe patient expectations need to be managed although improvements are still possible. In my own experience, however, this does not happen overnight. Patients must be willing to accept a new normal or status quo on the basis that things are never likely to be the same again. Many patients with chronic conditions will have minor irritants and Neuroendocrine Cancer patients are no exception in this regard.
HOWEVER …….. The specialist view of ‘stable’ will be looking at tumour and hormone makers. The patient is likely to have a much wider view of ‘stable’ and it will include ‘quality of life’ markers.
So ….what is stable for me?
Looking at my medical documents, I was not really considered ‘stable’ by specialists until 2 years after diagnosis. The measure of that is in scans and markers. Nothing has grown since 2012 although I have a thyroid lesionbeing tracked on watch and wait. My key NET markers have been solidly in range since 2012. Today, my on-going monthly treatments are well organised, I’m in touch with my specialists and undergo several surveillance checks beforehand every 6 months currently. I get regular/normal illnesses and those are logged in my diary to look for any clues or associations with anything else. In between consultations, I can call in for urgent help if need be. Irregularities of concern to my ‘stability’ are checked, referred to other specialists if necessary and treated. I feel well, I look well (but you should see my insides ….). I think I’m on top of things.
I think the UK (for example) is very well serviced with district NET Centres across the country each with specialists in Neuroendocrine Cancer and most include a dedicated NET Specialist Nurse – some areas are better served than others. In my opinion, NET Nurses can prove invaluable in on-going care scenarios. In fact, I was very pleased to see a NET Nurse attending and taking a greater role in my most recent MDT meetings. I’m fairly certain other countries have similar setups. Some countries may not be so fortunate and are struggling to get the right resources – I can see this on one or two ‘corporate’ Facebook and Twitter sites. Specialist NET Nurses are an extremely valuable commodity – they do brilliant work and we probably need more! The same could be said for NET Specialist Dietitians who are key to providing quality of life improvements. In fact, I was delighted to see this recommendation at ENETS 2018 in Barcelona.
OK … I may be stable (ish) but I still need support!
However ……. my stability does NOT mean I’m complacent. For minor issues, it’s always useful to talk to a medical professional, even on the telephone. I think of my GP (PCP) as a ‘virtual’ member of my Multi-Disciplinary Team (MDT) and I copy them into any important correspondence between myself and my Oncologist. They are normally copied in coming the other way (if not I make sure they are). This is starting to return dividends. Whilst my GP is positioned to deal with most of my ‘irritants’, I still believe specialist assistance is required for many NET Cancer problems or any problem where there is potentially an overlap or risk of a connection. Being your own advocate is useful in these scenarios. Patient-doctorcommunicationis vital and I find it best to drive this myself. I’m lucky to have direct ‘as and when’ contact a specialist NET Nurse. All NET patients should have the same.
The best advocate for you is YOU (or someone very close to you)
Although I still need constant surveillance, being stable allows me to focus on QoL and in particular trying to improve on my ‘normal’. Whilst we are on that subject, did you hear the one about the constipated NET patient? This article contains a summary of my attempts to gain a decent quality of life.
Although I read patient forums, I don’t necessarily rely on them a lot for my own issues. On sporadic one-off forum questions (…..and not forgetting that hundreds of symptom questions are related to ‘the gut’), the discussions can end up with many different and confusing answers. Plus there are so many patients who are at varying stages of their disease, use different types of healthcare systems, have had different treatments and have different types of NET, have other issues going on, it can end up as a tangled mess as people try to compare apples with pears. To help with this issue, I created my own private Facebook group and I try to emphasise these issues through moderation.
I like to do my own research as I want to be in control of my own QoL. One of the most troublesome QoL issues for patients is diet and the digestive system generally (i.e.managing the gut). For many NET patients, particularly those who have had surgery and/or persisting syndrome, diet and nutrition is a huge challenge as it can very often mimic other problems which can present with a wide range of ‘syndrome like’ symptoms such as fatigue, weight issues and even anxiety. More somatostatin analogues and other drugs might just be the wrong response in certain scenarios. I feel there is a huge gap in the follow-up treatment for people who suffer this as a consequence of their cancer. For example, and to the best of my knowledge, there is only a few dedicated and practicing Neuroendocrine specialist dietician in the whole of the UK (…..I’m willing to be corrected here). Some of you might be thinking that any dietician should be able to help? Although you would be correct to a certain extent, I personally do not believe this is the best or optimum solution. There are very specific issues with NET Cancer patients that are bespoke and complex to the point that conventional cancer diet practices may not fully apply. It’s not just about what you eat………..
NET Cancer patients need specialist dietary advice covering the whole spectrum from diet itself to the use of supplements where required, post-surgical advice, managing the long-term side effects of treatment, combatting and treating malabsorption and nutrient deficiencies caused by the complexities of their cancer or the consequences of their treatment. Personally, I think more resources and research in this area would be useful.
This gap is one of the reasons why I asked Tara Whyand (a dietician with specialist Neuroendocrine Cancer knowledge) to help me co-author a series of blogs to focus in on a few key areas. I didn’t want to say what someone should or should not do, I wanted to say why this is an area to watch. The ‘why‘ is important as it helps you in your efforts to distinguish the effects of a syndrome or a co-morbidity from the effects of your treatment (if applicable). I find this knowledge helps me to think ‘outside the box’ rather than just accepting ‘it’s the syndrome‘. I personally feel I’ve been able to harness this knowledge to improve my QoL.
Whenever I need to know anything nowadays, I mostly just look on the internet and sometimes I ask my virtual PA ‘Alexa’ to look for me! However, you need to be very careful in acceptance of what is credible information and what isn’t.
As a relatively experienced health blogger and activist, I like to think of myself as ‘internet savvy’, so I occasionally find myself using ‘Dr Google’ to diagnose my aches, pains and unusual feelings (and I confess to using it to help others). I mostly find there are no real or definitive answers online for patient issues. Although I seem to learn something on each piece of research, I also find some really worrying stuff. Some symptoms can have dozens of reasons and I often realise how difficult it can often be for a doctor faced with unusual, vague and nonsensical symptoms!
On a recent online symptom check for lower left abdominal spasms, I discovered I was pregnant with an alien baby!
The internet is really powerful but also really dangerous. For example if you look up “best treatment for cancer”, you have an astonishing 300 million offerings. Right there with rigorous, evidence-based sites, there are those offering fermented foods and DIY cancer cure kits (e.g. fake healthcare news and cancer myths). Worried patients sometimes need help to distinguish between sensible advice and fanciful claims/ miracle cures.
When I combine my own experience with what I read on patient forums, I can see that internet searching is not for the faint of heart. Some people are already in a state of anxiety before they started searching Dr Google’s archives, and what they find has probably made their anxiety worse. In fact, the rise of the internet has created a new term for those who worry themselves sick and continually misdiagnose symptoms on the internet – ‘Cyberchondriac’.
Even when we know ‘googling’ our symptoms won’t end well, we don’t seem to care, we just need answers! Searching authoritative sites is therefore really important and the availability of proper medical information online is actually putting more power in the hands of patients. It’s how we as patients exploit it that is really important. Just as you can find examples of ‘cyberchondria’ online, you can also find examples of patient power in a doctor’s office. Worryingly, you can also find examples of ‘Dr Google’ being right after being dismissed by real doctors, sometimes resulting in patient illness or even death.
The medical community need to accept that searching for more information is a natural patient instinct, not a slight against one’s doctor. The profession will have to get better at educating the next generation of doctors now that Dr Google is here to stay and, I think, to help. That said, I don’t believe the internet will ever replace the profound human dimension of the doctor-patient relationship.
Tips for online searching:
1. Don’t actually use internet search engines if you can help it, go to a reputable site and then search that. For NETs try RonnyAllan.NET
2. Try to be specific as possible because vague search terms will result in frightening answers, and in practice any symptom can be read as a sign for nearly every single horrible illness, or a worsening or recurrence of an existing condition.
3. Less common conditions are less common, and minor symptoms often resolve themselves in time. If you have more worrying symptoms, or if your symptoms are changing or progressing, then go ‘offline’ i.e. visit your GP or primary care facility. If you’re sure of your facts, be assertive until you’re convinced otherwise. However, accept that the internet may be wrong when you seek medical help.
5. If you’re someone with an already diagnosed serious illness, theworry that goes with that is quite understandable – check out my 8 tips article. However, the same tips apply although you may now have established your own specific sources of advice in addition the general health areas.
6. Charities and associations for specific conditions are also a good information source but just note they may not have the best or up to date simply because they have been granted a ‘charity’ or equivalent status, so be careful, I’ve been some complete rubbish on these sites. Patient forums can be ‘frighteningly good’ but they can also be ‘good at frightening’. Personally, I try not to compare myself to strangers on the internet.
OK, the lead graphic is slightly ‘tongue in cheek’ but for those who are very anxious, it’s a reality. I can see from my own group that many Neuroendocrine Cancer patients have become very adept at searching online – useful because many still need a lot of help.
Be careful out there it’s dangerous. I have a private group for patients and caregivers where I like to ‘keep it real’. Check it out here.