Neuroendocrine Cancer Clinical Trial – Lutetium-177 OPS-201 (Satoreotide)

ops 201

What is Lutetium-177 OPS-201?

This is a ‘next generation’ Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) or more specifically the radiopharmaceutical that binds to both activated and unactivated somatostatin receptors which are upregulated on these tumours. There is far higher binding via this mechanism than standard octreotate. The technical name of the radiopharmaceutical is Satoreotide tetraxetan lutetium-177 (author’s note, I’m guessing but it could be a variant of Lanreotide).  It was once named JR11.

What’s the difference to the current approved therapy? 

Conventional PRRT (e.g. Lutathera, Lu177 Dotatate) is based on a somatostatin receptor ‘agonist’ approach, whereas 177Lu Ops 201 Satoreotide is a receptor ‘Antagonist’.  The differences are quite technical but in the most layman terms , the antagonist has the capability of attaching (binding) to more receptors, including those in a ‘resting’ or ‘inactive’ state, spends more time on the tumor than agonist based therapies. The result is a higher number of receptor binding sites and greater tumor uptake.  In addition it is said to show an improved tumor-to-kidney dose ratio compared to 177Lu-DOTA-TATE.

This would also be reflected in the theranostic use of the drug in Ga68 imaging (i.e. Ga68 Satoreotide).

Useful reading:

This presentation from Theranostics Australia

The Clinical Trial

The clinical trial is named “Study to Evaluate the Safety and Preliminary Efficacy of 177Lu-OPSC001 in NETs”.  The protocol involves 3 cycles 8 weeks apart of intravenous Lu-177 OPS-201. All patients will have baseline Ga-68 octreotate imaging performed.

The treatment is available for all NET patients with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of:

  • unresectable GEP NET (Grade I and Grade II according to WHO classification (2010, Annex 01), functioning and non-functioning).
  • unresectable “typical lung NET” or “atypical lung NET” are acceptable (with the exception of Large Cell Bronchial Neuroendocrine Neoplasms and Small Cell Lung Cancers).
  • malignant, unresectable pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma

Patients who have previously had Lu-177 octreotate (e.g. Lutathera) are not eligible. Patients may have had any other treatment including chemotherapy, radiotherapy or Somatostatin Analogues (e.g. octreotide, landreotide).

There are other inclusion and exclusion criteria to be found within the clinical trial document.  The trial is due to compete in May 2022.

Where is the Trial based?  

At the time of writing and according to the Clinical Trial document, Australia (Melbourne and Perth),  Austria (Vienna), Denmark (Aarhus), Switzerland (Basel), UK (Royal Free London).  Two sites are also listed in France (Nantes and Toulouse) but trial document currently marked as not yet recruiting.

What about USA?

I also found an additional trial based in Memorial Sloan Kettering New York designed to take a theranostic approach by using  Satoreotide (JR11) for the pre-treatment imaging, e.g. Ga68 satoreotide (JR11) and the 177Lu version for treatment. The clinical trial document indicates this trial is active but NOT RECRUITING and is entitled “Theranostics of Radiolabeled Somatostatin Antagonists 68Ga-DOTA-JR11 and 177Lu-DOTA-JR11 in Patients With Neuroendocrine Tumors”

Thanks for reading

You may also find these PRRT related articles useful:

PRRT Overview plus locations 

Phase 1 trial of Targeted Alpha-emitter Therapy (TAT) –  212 Pb-AR-RMX

COMPETE trial 177Lu Edotreotide-Solucin

PRRT and Chemo Trial

Ronny

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Remember ….. in the war on Neuroendocrine Cancer, let’s not forget to win the battle for better quality of life!

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Neuroendocrine Cancer – Short Update from NANETS 2018

NANETS 2018

I would love to go to a NANETS conference but I would need sponsorship or otherwise have to fund my own way there. Seattle sounds like a great place to visit. I would even have been their twitter correspondent had they asked!

I’ve been to the European equivalent twice, they always have theirs in Barcelona it would seem, at least NANETS uses different locations making it more interesting.  It’s a scientific conference for the most part, but I guess some basic stuff is also covered.

However, in the world of instant contact and communications on the internet, together with twitter, one can keep up to speed on what is or has been discussed.  One day, NANETS and ENETS will be sufficiently advanced that we can all watch the presentations from the comfort of our own homes (you heard it here!)

I’ve put together a collection of things I found interesting and offer them here for your perusal and selection via links.

One of the first issues to discuss was the confirmation of the new NANETS management team and board – you will recognise most names here:

Officers (2018 to 2020 Term):

    • Chair: James Howe, MD The University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine
    • Vice Chair: Emily Bergsland, MD The University of California San Francisco School of Medicine
    • Secretary: Jonathan Strosberg, MD Moffitt Cancer Center
    • Treasurer: Pam Kunz, MD Stanford University Medical Center

Board of Directors:

      • Jennifer Chan, MD, MPH (2018-2020) Dana Farber Cancer Institute
      • Thorvardur Halfdanarson, MD (2018-2020) The Mayo Clinic
      • Daniel Halperin, MD (2015-2019) University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      • Erik Nakakura, MD, Ph.D. Research Committee Board Representative (2018-2020) The University of California San Francisco School of Medicine
      • Rodney Pommier, MD (2018-2020) Oregon Health and Science University
      • Diane Reidy, MD (2015-2019) Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
      • Simron Singh, MD, Conference Committee Board Representative (2018-2019) Odette Cancer Center at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center
      • Michael Soulen, MD (2018-2020) The Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      • James Yao, MD (2018-2020) University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

Abstract Selection

A selection of poster abstracts below.  There was a lot more but these ones made output on twitter so I guess these were headline acts and probably of interest to patients. The extract texts/short videos I’ve included are probably all that most patients will need but when I have electronic access to the posters, I will update with links if possible and repost for those who would like to see the full detail.

The Value of Genetic Testing in NETs

This cover two posters, one for Neuroendocrine Carcinoma (very interesting) and the other covering Neuroendocrine Tumours (i.e. well differentiated NETs).  Click on the title above or click here.

An Update on Lung NET Guidelines

Some interesting snippets here and an indication that the most comprehensive Lung NET Guidelines are those produced by ENETS by Caplin et al.   Click on the title above or click here.

A Comprehensive Look at Update and Developments in NETs (Dr Thorvardur Haldanasron).

Interesting summary of new stuff in trials. Plus some interesting bits on SI NETs and pNETs.  Click on the title or click here.   There’s also a short video of Dr Haldanasron (slightly different content) – click here.

Sequencing of Lanreotide Can Improve Outcomes in Patients With Advanced GEP-NETs

Interesting trial output looking at the potential benefits of Lanreotide after Octreotide.  Click on the title or click here.

Dr Scott Paulson on Current Challenges in the NETs Treatment Landscape

Interesting and as with many specialist videos I’ve seen, sequencing of treatment remains challenging.  Text and video inside.  Click on the title to see more or click here.

Debating Best First-Line Treatment in Well-Differentiated G3 NENs

As you will know from my staging and grading article, there is now a Grade 3 well differentiated tumour status (called a NET rather than a Neuroendocrine Carcinoma).  However, there is not yet enough data to work out the optimum treatments, which may, in certain circumstances, be different from their poorly differentiated counterparts (Neuroendocrine Carcinoma).  Click on the title above or click here.

Examining the Benefits of Integrative Oncology, Nutrition in NETs

An unmet need – very interesting text.  Click on the title or click here.

Dr Heloisa Soares Discusses the Roles of Somatostatin Analogs in GEP-NETs

Dr Soares discusses the two roles of Somatostatin analogs: treating symptoms related to the tumors and controlling tumor growth.  Complete with video. Click on the title or click here.

Analysis Demonstrates Effectiveness, Patient Satisfaction With Lanreotide in GEP-NETs

Interesting data analysis about Lanreotide.  Click on the title or click here.

Ipsen Presents Data on Somatuline Depot at the North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (NANETS) Annual Symposium

Some very interesting stuff in here including comparisons with Octreotide.  Click on the title or click here.

Immunotherapy -Hits, Misses With New Therapies for Neuroendocrine Tumors

You may be prompted for a login, if so, let me know, I will post you the content.  The ‘misses’ is mainly the fact that Keytruda (Pembrolizumab) does not look good as a single agent treatment for high grade NEC. Headline is “Pembrolizumab, though generally well tolerated, showed limited activity as a single agent in high-grade neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) in this study,” Arvind Dasari, MD, of MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, and colleagues concluded.”  Some other interesting points though.   Click on the title above or click here.

 

Thanks for reading

Ronny

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64Cu-DOTATATE – a potential expansion of the Somatostatin Receptor PET Imaging for Neuroendocrine Cancer?

Curium and RadioMedix Inc. announce an exclusive agreement to develop and commercialize 64Cu-Dotatate, an investigational positron emission tomography (PET) diagnostic agent for patients with Neuroendocrine Tumors (NETs). RadioMedix is currently engaged in Phase III clinical trials of the agent and expects to file a New Drug Application with the Food and Drug Administration in 2019. This partnership builds on the initial development work conducted by RadioMedix and will benefit from Curium’s regulatory, manufacturing, distribution, and commercial expertise. The radionuclide is not new, it’s been in use for some time, mainly in Denmark.

64Cu is a PET isotope that can be produced at a central location in quantities to meet the commercial needs of hospitals and imaging centers without the supply limitations of nuclear generator-based PET isotopes,” said Ebrahim Delpassand, MD, CEO of RadioMedix. “Once approved, 64Cu-Dotatate will be available to patients in medical centers with PET capability across the country. This will address the shortage or lack of availability of somatostatin analogue PET agents that we are currently experiencing in many parts of the U.S.”

Ga68 PET Shortages explained

This statement is in relation to the current shortage of Ga68 PET radionuclide. For those not aware, the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) has written a letter to the FDA about ongoing shortages of generators that produce gallium-68 (Ga-68), a radioisotope used regularly in medical imaging. The letter—available here.

The letter explains that Ga-68 is currently used to produce NETSPOT from Advanced Accelerator Applications (a Novartis company), which was approved in June 2016 to help treat neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) in adult and pediatric patients using PET. NETSPOT, however, is only approved using specific generators. And those generators are only approved for either 400 uses or one year, whichever comes first. This has led to shortages throughout the United States.

SNMMI notes some possible remedies for this shortage. For instance, “a temporary exemption to the 400-elution limit would have a major impact on NETSPOT capacity for patients,” according to the letter. In addition, using a wider variety of generators to produce NETSPOT or using cyclotron-produced gallium chloride are two other methods that could improve production in a relatively short amount of time. “Further discussion with the manufacturers is necessary,” the authors added.

Read more about Ga68 PET and its use in Neuroendocrine Cancer – click here. Worth also noting that RadioMedix is also involved in a number of NET related initiatives including:

1. Trials for a new type of PRRT called ‘Targeted Alpha-emitter Therapy (TAT) – I’ve written about this previously. Read my article here.
2. An exclusive distributor for the TM Isotopen Technologien München AG (ITM) PRRT product currently in trial. I wrote about this here.

How does 64Cu-Dotatate compare with Ga68 PET and Octreotide Scans?

To learn more about previous studies on 64Cu-Dotatate, here’s 2 articles published in the Journal of Nuclear Medicine which are a head to head comparison of 64Cu-Dotatate with Ga68 Dotatoc and with 111 Indium Octreotide (Octreoscan).

Head-to-Head Comparison of 64Cu-DOTATATE and 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT: A Prospective Study of 59 Patients with Neuroendocrine Tumors – http://jnm.snmjournals.org/content/58/3/451.full

PET/CT (left) and PET (right) scans of patient with intestinal NET and multiple metastases. More lesions are seen in intestinal region with 64Cu-DOTATATE than with 68Ga-DOTATOC.

Conclusion: 64Cu-DOTATATE has advantages over 68Ga-DOTATOC in the detection of lesions in NET patients. Although patient-based sensitivity was the same for 64Cu-DOTATATE and 68Ga-DOTATOC in this cohort, significantly more lesions were detected by 64Cu-DOTATATE. Furthermore, the shelf life of more than 24 h and the scanning window of at least 3 h make 64Cu-DOTATATE favorable and easy to use in the clinical setting.

64Cu-DOTATATE PET for Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Prospective Head-to-Head Comparison with 111In-DTPA-Octreotide in 112 Patients –http://jnm.snmjournals.org/content/56/6/847.full

Multiple small liver metastases (>10), peritoneal solitary tumor mass, and 3 lymph node metastases shown on 64Cu-DOTATATE PET/CT in patient with pancreatic NET. No foci were detected by 111In-DTPA-OC SPECT (Precedence scanner). All findings on PET were confirmed to be true-positive. (A) 111In-DTPA-OC planar images. (B) 64Cu-DOTATATE maximum-intensity-projection image with arrows pointing at liver and lymph node metastases. Insert is fused PET/CT of peritoneal solitary tumor mass. (C) Axial CT and SPECT of liver. (D) Axial CT and PET of liver revealing several small liver metastases.

Conclusion: With these results, we demonstrate that 64Cu-DOTATATE is far superior to 111In-DTPA-OC in diagnostic performance in NET patients. Therefore, we do not hesitate to recommend implementation of 64Cu-DOTATATE as a replacement for 111In-DTPA-OC.

Summary

The shortage of Ga68 PET radionuclide caused by limitations of the generators in use is unfortunate. Reading the SNMMI letter, I think progress can be made downstream. However, the introduction of a new scanning agent could be useful as long as the trials prove its safety and efficiently and is comparable to current tools. There is no news of any plans to extend this potential new radionuclide outside the US but I suspect that would change following an FDA approval.

If you can see it, you can detect it!

Thanks for reading

Ronny

I’m also active on Facebook. Like my page for even more news. I’m also building up this site here: Ronny Allan

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Remember ….. in the war on Neuroendocrine Cancer, let’s not forget to win the battle for better quality of life!

patients included

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Sapanisertib – a drug on trial for Neuroendocrine Tumors (NET) with a pancreatic primary


Researchers are testing the drug Sapanisertib to see if it can halt the progression of pancreatic NETs (pNETs) which cannot be surgically removed, have not responded to other treatment, and have spread to other parts of the body.

What is Sapanisertib?

Sapanisertib is one of a group of targeted therapy drugs that interferes with tumor progression by inhibiting an enzyme known as mTOR which a tumor cell needs for growth.  In fact this is the same technique used in Afinitor (Everolimus), already approved for NETs.

It is also being tested in a number of different advanced cancers, including bladder, kidney, breast, liver, and certain types of lung cancers, among others.

The Clinical Trial

The primary goal of the phase II study is to evaluate how well pNET tumors respond to Sapanisertib. To qualify for this trial patients must have advanced pNET that cannot be surgically removed, and which have not responded to previous treatment with similar drugs. All participants will receive Sapanisertib, and will be checked periodically to see if their tumors are responding to the drug.

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided at this link which provides more details about the Sapanisertib pNET trial – click here and check the inclusion and exclusion criteria; and other data.  There are 354 study locations across the USA.

Thanks for reading

Ronny

I’m also active on Facebook.  Like my page for even more news.  I’m also building up this site here: Ronny Allan

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Remember ….. in the war on Neuroendocrine Cancer, let’s not forget to win the battle for better quality of life!

Update – Oncolytic Virus Trials for Neuroendocrine Cancer

I’ve posted extensively about this subject on Facebook early last year, focused on the ongoing Neuroendocrine Cancer trial in Uppsala Sweden. I wanted to incorporate this information into a single article ready for future news, whilst at the same time updating you on further developments in the field of Oncolytic Viruses for Neuroendocrine Cancer.

What exactly are Oncolytic Viruses?

Oncolytic Viruses infects and breaks down cancer cells but not normal cells. Oncolytic viruses can occur naturally or can be made in the laboratory by changing other viruses. Certain oncolytic viruses are being studied in the treatment of cancer. Some scientists say they are another type of immunotherapy whilst others say it’s too early to classify as such. The good news is that Neuroendocrine Cancer seems to figure in this work with two of these viruses apparently working on mice to date. Listed below are two active projects involving NETs, one directly and one indirectly.

The Uppsala Trial – AdVince

15871660_793548617450098_750736690369970047_n
The Oncolytic Virus AdVince is removed from the freezer ready for the Neuroendocrine Cancer Trial

There has been no real update on what is happening since I posted last year. Hopefully, positive thinking indicates no news is good news. If anyone has anything more than what I’ve written or linked to in this article, please let me know. I’ll briefly described what’s happening and then you can link to my Facebook article if you need more background.

The trial is called AdVince after Vince Hamilton who funded it. Unfortunately he died before he saw any output but his forward thinking and benevolence lives on and might hopefully help NET patients in the longer term. It’s quite a small trial and is being conducted in Uppsala University Sweden, a famous European NET Centre of Excellence and where many people from across the world attend to take advantage of PRRT availability and experience and is home to famous NET specialist Kjell Öberg, MD, PhD, a professor of endocrine oncology.

A Swedish man (Jan-Erik Jannsson) was the first to get the virus to their cancer (NETs) using a genetically modified virus.

Unfortunately, I was given the news from a source close to the trial that Jan died last year of pneumonia.  I have no evidence to suggest his death is in anyway connected to the trial but I’m told he was an ill man prior to the trial commencing.  I have therefore dedicated this post to him.  RIP Jan.

Jan

The initial data presented by the trial indicated that AdVince can be safely evaluated in a phase I/IIa clinical trial for patients with liver-dominant NET.  The last I heard from the trial is that they are trying to recruit a further 12 patients to Phase IIa (the trial document allows for up to 36). 

Read more background on my Facebook post here: Click here

The trial document on Clinical Trials Website: Click here

Then read this status update from the trial sponsors released in March 2018

Pexa-Vec Oncolytic Virus Trials

This is an oncolytic viral therapy currently in phase III and phase Ib/II clinical trials for use against primary liver (Hepatocellular Carcinoma) and Colorectal cancers, respectively. Pexa-Vec is a weakened (or attenuated) virus that is based on a vaccine used in the eradication of smallpox. The modified virus is injected directly into the cancer tumour, to grow inside these rapidly growing cancer cells and hopefully kill them.

According to the Colorectal Clinical Trial, the aim of the study is to evaluate whether the anti-tumor immunity induced by Pexa-Vec oncolytic viral therapy can be enhanced by immune checkpoint inhibition i.e. they are testing it in conjunction with Immunotherapy drugs (Durvalumab, and a combination of Durvalumab and Tremelimumab).

The Hepatocellular Carcinoma trial (Phocus) is at Phase III where the sponsors are evaluating Pexa-Vec to determine if it can slow the progression of advanced liver cancer and improve quality of life.

The work is a collaboration forged between University of California San Francisco (UCSF) vascular researcher Donald McDonald, MD, PhD, and researchers at San Francisco-based biotech SillaJen Biotherapeutics Inc. (formerly Jennerex Biotherapeutics, Inc.), a subsidiary of SillaJen, Inc., headquartered in Korea.

A tumor with green patches of vaccinia virus infection surrounded by red blood vessels. Image by Donald McDonald Lab

So what’s the Neuroendocrine Connection with Pexa-Vec?

As part of the research, McDonald’s lab injected it intravenously into mice genetically modified to develop pancreatic neuroendocrine cancer. They found that the virus failed to infect healthy organs or make the animals ill, but succeeded in infecting blood vessels within tumors. These initial infections caused the vessels to leak and expose the tumor cells to the virus. In these experiments, the virus managed to infect and destroy only a small proportion of tumor cells directly, the researchers found, but within five days of the initial infection, the rest of the tumor began to be killed by a powerful immune reaction.

“At first small spots of the tumor were infected, but then most of the tumor started to die,” McDonald said. “We were able to show that while only about five percent of cells were infected by the virus, the number of cells that were killed was more than ten times higher. As far as I know, no one has ever done this kind of analysis.”

McDonald’s team wondered whether they could improve the efficacy of the virus by adding in a second drug called Sutent (sunitinib) that blocks blood vessel growth and alters immune function. The combination worked, with significantly greater tumor killing than with the virus alone. When the researchers examined the tumors, they discovered that the second drug acted by making the immune system hyper-alert to tumor proteins released by the viral infection, rather than through effects on tumor blood vessels.

Summary

Clearly it’s still early days in the Oncolytic Virus field with minimum breakthrough in terms of success on humans. In terms of the Neuroendocrine connection, it is exciting that two programmes are showing results (albeit in mice). We wait to hear from Uppsala on how the human test of AdVince is coming along. My agents are scanning the internet every day looking for any comment.
If you want to learn more about Oncolytic Viruses in general – there’s a great summary here.

Thanks for reading

Ronny

I’m also active on Facebook. Like my page for even more news. I’m also building up this site here: Ronny Allan

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My Diagnosis and Treatment History

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Remember ….. in the war on Neuroendocrine Cancer, let’s not forget to win the battle for better quality of life!

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Neuroendocrine Tumor Drug Clinical Trial – Cabozantinib (includes news on Pheochromoctyoma and Paraganglioma)

What is Cabozantinib?

Cabozantinib is an oral drug which works by blocking the growth of new blood vessels that feed a tumour. In addition to blocking the formation of new blood cells in tumours, Cabozantinib also blocks pathways that may be responsible for allowing cancers cells to become resistant to other “anti-angiogenic” drugs. It is a type of drug called a growth blocker.  Cabozantinib has been studied or is already in research studies as a possible treatment for various types of cancer, including prostate cancer, ovarian cancer, brain cancer, thyroid cancer, lung cancer, and kidney cancer. During my research, I found that it has a connection to Medullary Thyroid Cancer (MTC) which is a type of Neuroendocrine Cancer, frequently associated with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN).  Cabozantinib, under the brand name of ‘Cometriq’ was approved by the FDA in 2012 for use in MTC.  Read more about Cometriq here.  It’s also been approved by the FDA for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (branded as Cabometyx). I also discovered that there is an exclusive licensing Agreement with the manufacturers (Elelixis) and Ipsen (of Lanreotide fame) to commercialize and develop Cabozantinib in regions outside the United States, Canada and Japan

Growth blockers are a type of biological therapy and include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, proteasome inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors, PI3K inhibitors, histone deacetylase inhibitors and hedgehog pathway blockers.  Cabozantinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI).  They block chemical messengers (enzymes) called tyrosine kinases.  Tyrosine kinases help to send growth signals in cells so blocking them stop the cell growing and dividing.  Some TKIs can block more than one tyrosine kinase and these are known as multi-TKIs.

cabozantinib-picture
Example action of Cabozantinib

So Capozantinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor and is therefore a biological therapy and growth blocker just like Everolimus (Afinitor) and Sunitinib (Sutent) – some texts describe thelattero two as chemotherapy but this is just not accurate.

Very technical process but in the simplest of terms, Cabozantinib is designed to disrupt the actions of VEGF (a growth factor) and MET (a growth factor receptor) which promote spread of cancerous cells through the growth of new blood vessels.  Whilst we are on this subject, please note Everolimus (Afinitor) is an mTOR inhibitor and Sunitinib (Sutent) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Many people think these drugs are a type of chemo – that is incorrect, these are targeted biological therapies.  See more on this by clicking here.

What is the current trial status of Capozantinib?

A Phase III trial is now recruiting entitled Cabozantinib S-malate in Treating Patients With Neuroendocrine Tumors Previously Treated With Everolimus That Are Locally Advanced, Metastatic, or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery”. 

The trial has 172 locations across the US (see link below). The primary study (final data) is scheduled Jan 1st 2021.

You can read the trial documentation by clicking here.

Progress report

  1. Poster submission for 2017 Gastrointestinal Cancer Symposium
  2. Onc Live output from the 2017 Gastrointestinal Cancer Symposium
  3. Output from NANETS 2017
  4. A funded piece of research by the NET Research Foundation – check it out herelooks like they are trying to figure out what patients might benefit from Cabozantinib using biomarker data to predict response.
  5. Dr Jennifer Chan speaking in 2018 about the drug potential.  (Apologies for the use of the out of date term ‘Carcinoid‘).
  6. Phase 3 Clinical Trial Document – click here

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UPDATED 2018 – There’s also another trial looking at unresectable metastatic Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas

A Phase 2 Study to Evaluate the Effects of Cabozantinib in Patients with Unresectable Metastatic Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas 

This part is from an article collaboration between MedPage Today® and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists

BOSTON — Cabozantinib (Cabometyx) may benefit patients with malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas, according to results of a phase II trial presented here.

Patients receiving cabozantinib (Cometriq) treatment experienced notable tumor shrinkage in the lymph nodes, liver, and lung metastases, according to Camilo Jimenez, MD, of the MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, and colleagues.

Additionally, progression-free survival significantly increased after treated to 12.1 months (range 0.9-28) compared with just 3.2 months prior to treatment, they reported at the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) annual meeting.

Cabozantinib treatment was also tied to an improvement in blood pressure and performance status, as well as remission of diabetes among these patients.

“Malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are frequently characterized by an excessive secretion of catecholamines. [Patients] have a large tumor burden and they have a decreased overall survival,” explained Jimenez. “Tumors are frequently very vascular and frequently associated with bone metastases. In fact, up to 20% of patients who have malignancy of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas may have predominant bone metastases.”

He added that “an interesting aspect of this tumor is that C-MET receptor mutation have been found in occasional patients with malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.”

Cabozantinib is an anti-angiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which also targets RET, MET, and AXL. It is approved for metastatic medullary thyroid cancer, and was more recently approved for first-line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma.

“MET pathway is also involved in the development of bone metastases. In fact, cabozantinib is a very effective medications for patients who have bone metastases in the context of cancer of different origins,” Jimenez said.

In order to be eligible for the trial, patients with confirmed pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma had to be ineligible for curative surgery, have ≥3 months life expectancy, no risk for perforation or fistula, and adequate organ functioning. Prior to cabozantinib initiation, patients could not receive chemotherapy or biologic agents within 6 weeks, radiation within 4 weeks, or MIBG within 6 months.

Following histological confirmation of disease progression >1 year according to RECIST 1.1, the trial included 14 patients with measurable disease and eight patients with predominant/exclusive bone metastases. Fifteen patients subsequently enrolled into the trial, six of whom had germline mutations of the SDHB gene.

All participants were all started at an initial daily dose of 60 mg of cabozantinib, which was subsequently reduced down to between 40 to 20 mg due to toxicity in 13 patients based on tolerance.

The majority of these patients with measurable disease experienced some level of disease response. Six patients reported a partial response, defined as over a 30% reduction, while three patients achieved moderate response, marked by a 15%-30% reduction. Five of the patients with predominant bone metastases reported disease stabilization, according to results of an FDG-PET scan. One patient experienced disease progression while on treatment.

Overall, cabozantinib was generally well-tolerated without any grade 4 or 5 treatment-related adverse events reported. Some of the most common adverse events reported included grade mild dysgeusia, hand and foot syndrome, mucositis, fatigue, weight loss, and hypertension, according to the authors.

  • Primary Source – American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists meeting – AACE 2018; Abstract 142. attended my Medscape writers

You can see the Pheo/Para clinical trial document by clicking here.

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Summary

I generated this blog article to add value rather than just post the outputs for your own perusal.  I hope you find it useful.

Please note that taking part in a clinical trial is a big decision and must be considered carefully in conjunction with your specialists if necessary.  This article is not suggesting this trial is right for you.  Please check the inclusion and exclusion criteria in the trials document carefully. (Pheo/Para patients see other clinical trial link above)

Theranostics for Neuroendocrine Cancer – A Find and Destroy Mission

Neuroendocrine Cancer – we’re coming to get you! Graphic courtesy of Advanced Accelerator Applications

Theranostics is a joining of the words therapeutics and diagnostics. You may also see it conveyed as ‘Theragnostics’ and these terms are interchangeable.  The basic aim of theranotistics is to find and then destroy the ‘bad guys‘.  With Neuroendocrine Cancer, finding the tumours (the bad guys) can often be a challenge – they can be small and/or difficult to find – they are sometimes expert at camouflage.  Moreover, once found, they can then be difficult to treat (destroy), as they can often prove resistant to conventional cancer drugs and many are inoperable due to sheer quantity, spread and positioning.  When they are found and identified, it’s also really helpful to know from the intelligence gathered, how successful the destroy (therapeutic) part of the mission might be.  That is the beauty of theranostic pairing, i.e. the use of the same agent in the diagnostics – the ability to find, estimate likely success criteria and then hopefully destroy – or at least reduce the capability of the tumours and extend life.

A great example of an approved Theranostic Pair in Neuroendocrine Cancer, is the combination of the Somatostatin Receptor based Ga68  PET scan using NETSPOT or SomaKit TOC™ (US/Europe respectively) and Peptide Receptor Radiotherapy (PRRT) using Lutathera which both target NETs expressing the same somatostatin receptor, with PRRT intended to kill tumor cells by emitting a different kind of low-energy, short-range radiation than that of the diagnostic version. As mentioned above, the Ga68 PET scan can give a reasonably indication of therapeutic success using PRRT based on measurements taken during the scan (too complex for this article).

Theranostics – a step towards personalised medicine – graphic courtesy of Advanced Accelerator Applications.

THERANOSTICS – FIND

Octreoscan vs Ga68 PET

Ga68 PET 

Newer imaging agents targeting somatostatin receptors (SSTR) labelled with 68 Ga have been developed, namely, DOTATATE, DOTATOC and DOTANOC. They are collectively referred to as SSTR PET.

The full titles of the 3 types are:

68Ga-DOTA-Phe1-Tyr3-Octreotide (TOC),
68Ga-DOTA-NaI3-Octreotide (NOC),
68Ga-DOTA-Tyr3-Octreotate (TATE).

The main difference among these three tracers (DOTA-TOC, DOTA-NOC, and DOTA-TATE) is their variable affinity to SSTR subtypes. All of them can bind to SSTR2 and SSTR5, while only DOTA-NOC shows good affinity for SSTR3.

These agents have several benefits over In111-pentetreotide (Octreotide scan), including improved detection sensitivity, improved patient convenience due to the 2 hour length of the study (compared to 2 or 3 days with Octreoscan), decreased radiation dose, decreased biliary excretion due to earlier imaging after radiotracer administration, and the ability to quantify uptake. The quantification of the uptake can help decide whether a patient is suitable for PRRT. Eventually, all Octreotide scans should be replaced with SSTR PET.  To confirm the advantages of SSTR PET over Octreotide scans, a study comprising 1,561 patients reported a change in tumour management occurred in over a third of patients after SSTR PET/CT even when performed after an Octreotide scan. Worth pointing out that SSTR PET is replacing the ageing Octreotide scan and not conventional imaging (CI).  You can see the recommended scenarios for use of SSTR PET in this article published by the Journal of Nuclear Medicine

Ga68 PET scans have been in many locations for some time. Current excitement is focused on USA locations with Ga68 PET (NETSPOT) only recently approved (DOTATATE). Other countries/scan centres may use one of the other types of imaging agent.

Read much more about this scan in my detailed article on Ga68 PET here.

So SSTR PETs above have the ability to find and estimate likely success criteria for therapy.  We are now in a position to move on to ‘THERApy’ – e.g.  Peptide Receptor Radiotherapy or PRRT.

THERANOSTICS – DESTROY

click on picture to watch video

Lutathera® (note the ‘THERA’ which makes up the brand name)

Definitions:

Europe Approval: LUTATHERA®(lutetium (177Lu) Oxodotreotide) is indicated for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic, progressive, well differentiated (G1 and G2), somatostatin receptor positive gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEPNETs) in adults.

USA Approval: LUTATHERA® (lutetium Lu 177 dotatate) is indicated for the treatment of somatostatin receptor-positive gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), including foregut, midgut and hindgut neuroendocrine tumors in adults.

For commercial purposes, the drug may be slightly different on a regional basis. For all intents and purposes it does the same job.

As an example of how the drug is administered, please watch this short video from the European site:

Video courtesy of Advanced Accelerator Applications

Please see the following post for a summary of PRRT activity worldwide.  Please note this linked article is not designed to contain a list of every single location or country available – please bear that in mind when you read it – CLICK HERE

I’m very grateful to the team at Advanced Accelerator Applications for allowing me to use their site for graphics and videos.

Thanks for reading

Ronny

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Remember ….. in the war on Neuroendocrine Cancer, let’s not forget to win the battle for better quality of life!

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