In the news – new Neuroendocrine Tumour PET Fluorine-18 based ‘tracer’

In the news – new Neuroendocrine Tumour PET Fluorine-18 based ‘tracer’

Clinical Trials, Patient Advocacy
This should be of interest, particularly to Canadians. (Not to be confused with 18F-FDG which is a different scan). For people waiting for imaging tests to diagnose neuroendocrine cancer, time is of the essence. Now, thanks to researchers at the University of Alberta, a new medical imaging agent for PET scans promises to reduce wait times, while costing less to produce and possibly revealing more of some types of cancer tumors. Ralf Schirrmacher, an oncology imaging professor and member of the Cancer Research Institute of Northern Alberta, and his team at the Medical Isotope and Cyclotron Facility on the U of A's South Campus have been using a state-of-the-art cyclotron—a machine that already supplies the province with medical isotopes used in diagnostic scans—to create a new imaging compound that will…
Read More
Alpha-emitter PRRT: Phase 1/2 Study of AlphaMedix™ in Adult Subjects With SSTR positive NET

Alpha-emitter PRRT: Phase 1/2 Study of AlphaMedix™ in Adult Subjects With SSTR positive NET

Clinical Trials
Ebrahim S Delpassand, Izabela Tworowska, Rouzbeh Esfandiari, Julien Torgue, Jason Hurt, Afshin Shafie and Rodolfo Núñez Journal of Nuclear Medicine, January 2022, jnumed.121.263230; DOI: https://doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.121.263230 Trial SummaryAlphaMedix™ (²¹²Pb-DOTAMTATE) is a radiotherapeutic drug indicated in subjects with unresectable, metastatic somatostatin receptor (SSTR) positive neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Because 212Pb is an in vivo generator of alpha particles, it is particularly suitable for SSTR therapy applications, i.e. it's a type of PRRT. This drug addresses an unmet need in the field of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) for NETs. Substitution of an alpha emitter (²¹²Pb) for the beta emitters currently being used (i.e., 177Lu or 90Y) will provide significantly higher Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and a shorter path length. Higher LET particles should cause more tumor cell death. A shorter path length should result in less collateral damage to the normal tissue and therefore fewer…
Read More
New test of pancreatic cysts to help with cancer detection

New test of pancreatic cysts to help with cancer detection

Clinical Trials, Patient Advocacy, Treatment
With NETs, particularly pancreatic NETs, due to a lack of efficient prognostic markers, it is difficult to identify which cases are more likely to metastasise than others. Identifying whether cysts will turn cancerous is also another area requiring a screening program as a standard of care to monitor.   Molecular testing is advancing and this test I'm reporting here looks like good news in the case of assessing the risks of pancreatic cysts.  Pancreatic cysts are common. For example, up to 15% of the U.S. population will develop a pancreatic cyst at some point in their lives. Most of these cysts are benign, but a small fraction will transform into cancer, including pancreatic NET. A molecular test developed by the University of Pittsburgh is able to distinguish benign pancreatic cysts from…
Read More
Study of Lu-177-DOTATATE (Lutathera) in Combination With PARP Inhibitors in Inoperable/Metastatic Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (GEP-NET)

Study of Lu-177-DOTATATE (Lutathera) in Combination With PARP Inhibitors in Inoperable/Metastatic Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (GEP-NET)

Clinical Trials
PARP inhibitor with PRRT clinical trials update.  1. NIH Trial SummaryA phase I/II clinical trial at the NIH Clinical Center evaluates the effectiveness of a combination of two agents that may work in complementary ways to target inoperable or metastatic neuroendocrine tumoors. One agent, lutathera, emits radiation inside the body, causing DNA damage, and the second agent, olaparib, a PARP inhibitor, blocks the repair of DNA breaks.  The trial commences in Oct 2022 running for approximately 2 years 9 months. What is Lutathera?It's a type of Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT) and has been in use for some years as a standard of care (mostly second line).  Read more click here.What is Olaparib and what does it do in conjunction with Lutathera?Olaparib (AZD-2281, trade name Lynparza) is an FDA-approved targeted therapy for cancer, developed…
Read More
Neuroendocrine Cancer:  Glossary of Terms

Neuroendocrine Cancer: Glossary of Terms

Awareness, Clinical Trials, Diet and Nutrition, Living with Neuroendocrine Cancer, Patient Advocacy, Survivorship, Treatment
Welcome to my Neuroendocrine Cancer terms and definitions list providing a source of meanings for acronyms and medical terms, all sourced from top Neuroendocrine Cancer and general cancer sites. How to use this list:1. If your term begins with an A, click on A to find all terms beginning with A.  Select your term from the list.2. For numerical terms, please click on the hashtag (#) symbol in the A to Z strip.3. The term definition including acronym or abbreviation will be given in full along with any of my published articles containing that term as long as I have tagged it on my website to display in the list. Please note I'm constantly working on the repository to clean up all definitions, adding and removing links where necessary, and ensuring all definitions…
Read More
Prospective Phase II Trial of Prognostication by 68Ga-NOTA-AE105 uPAR PET in Patients with Neuroendocrine Neoplasms: Implications for uPAR-Targeted Therapy

Prospective Phase II Trial of Prognostication by 68Ga-NOTA-AE105 uPAR PET in Patients with Neuroendocrine Neoplasms: Implications for uPAR-Targeted Therapy

Clinical Trials
Summary A novel PET radiotracer can accurately assess the presence of a biomarker that indicates the level of tumor aggressiveness in neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs). According to research published in the September issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine, the detection of the biomarker provides useful information for physicians to provide personalized care for patients with NENs and may also serve as a potential target for peptide radionuclide therapy (PRRT) for NEN patients.What is uPAR? Tumorigenesis (the production or formation of a tumour or tumours) is closely related to the loss of control of many genes. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a glycolipid-anchored protein on the cell surface, is controlled by many factors in tumorigenesis and is expressed in many tumor tissues. What is different about targeting uPAR instead of somatostatin receptors?  uPAR expression…
Read More
A Study of CF33-hNIS (VAXINIA), an Oncolytic Virus, as Monotherapy or in Combination With Pembrolizumab in Adults With Metastatic or Advanced Solid Tumors (MAST)

A Study of CF33-hNIS (VAXINIA), an Oncolytic Virus, as Monotherapy or in Combination With Pembrolizumab in Adults With Metastatic or Advanced Solid Tumors (MAST)

Clinical Trials
A Study of CF33-hNIS (VAXINIA), an Oncolytic Virus, as Monotherapy or in Combination With Pembrolizumab in Adults With Metastatic or Advanced Solid Tumors (MAST)Neuroendocrine Neoplasms are considered solid tumours.Imugene Limited, a clinical-stage immuno-oncology company, and City of Hope, one of the largest cancer research and treatment organizations in the United States, today announced that the first patient was dosed in Phase 1 clinical trial evaluating the safety of novel cancer-killing virus CF33-hNIS VAXINIA when used in people with advanced solid tumors. The City of Hope-developed oncolytic virus has been shown to shrink colon, lung, breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancer tumors in preclinical laboratory and animal models.Interestingly, the principal investigator is listed as a NET Specialist. No conclusions should be drawn from this knowledge, and I have no information to suggest…
Read More
Clinical Trial:  Phase 1b/3 Targeted Alpha-Emitter PRRT RYZ101 (Ac225)

Clinical Trial: Phase 1b/3 Targeted Alpha-Emitter PRRT RYZ101 (Ac225)

Clinical Trials
What is RYZ101? RYZ101 is an investigational targeted alpha-emitter radiopharmaceutical therapy, designed to deliver a highly potent radioisotope, Actinium-225 (Ac225), to tumors expressing SSTR2. RYZ101 is being evaluated in clinical studies for patients with SSTR+ GEP-NETs who have previously been treated with Lu177-based somatostatin therapies.  There is also a plan to trial the drug in patients with extensive stage (ES) small cell lung cancer (SCLC), a type of lung Neuroendocrine Carcinoma. Where did this news come from? RayzeBio, Inc., a targeted radiopharmaceutical company developing an innovative pipeline against validated solid tumor targets, today announced significant progress in the clinical development of its lead product candidate, RYZ101. RYZ101 is an investigational, targeted radiopharmaceutical drug designed to deliver Actinium-225 (Ac225), a highly potent alpha-emitting radioisotope, to solid tumors expressing the somatostatin receptor…
Read More
Management of asymptomatic sporadic non-functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms no larger than 2 cm: interim analysis of prospective ASPEN trial

Management of asymptomatic sporadic non-functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms no larger than 2 cm: interim analysis of prospective ASPEN trial

Clinical Trials, Treatment
One of the most controversial subjects in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms is the management of small non-functional (asymptomatic) pancreatic NETs (NF-PanNEN).  In the most general terms, surgery is not recommended in tumours less than 2cm.  Allowances are made for those who are functional (i.e. symptomatic with one of several syndrome possibilities) or where the tumour is threatening important vessels (i.e. pre-emptive surgery).  Normally watching and waiting is recommended.  I wrote more detail in an earlier blog - Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumours - to cut or not to cutSome patients opt (or push for) a non-guideline surgery regardless and as one other patient advocate put it, "they will surgeon shop until they find one who will do it". While the guidelines are just that (guidelines), decisions on surgery in such cases must be carefully considered…
Read More
Prospective phase II trial of [68Ga]Ga-NODAGA-E[c(RGDyK)]2 PET/CT imaging of integrin  for prognostication in patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms

Prospective phase II trial of [68Ga]Ga-NODAGA-E[c(RGDyK)]2 PET/CT imaging of integrin for prognostication in patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms

Clinical Trials
August 25, 2022 -- A new gallium-68 PET radiotracer appears effective for predicting higher risk of disease progression and mortality in patients with neuroendocrine tumors, according to a study published August 18 in the Journal of Nuclear Medicine. Conclusion: Tumor lesion uptake of 68Ga-NODAGA-E[c(RGDyK)]2 was evident in patients with all grades of NEN. High uptake was associated with a poorer prognosis. Further studies are warranted to establish if 68Ga-NODAGA-E[c(RGDyK)]2 PET/CT may become a prediction tool for identification of patients eligible for treatments targeting integrin αvβ3. Why is this different to regular Ga68 Dotatate?  In the simplest of terms, Ga68 Dotatate is targeting somatostatin receptors which are known to be expressed by most NETs, it can help indicate if treatment using somatostatin analogue therapy is feasible.  Integrin αvβ3 recognizing cell surface integrins is upregulated on endothelial…
Read More
Curtis Crump: “If I’m going down, it won’t be without a fight.”

Curtis Crump: “If I’m going down, it won’t be without a fight.”

Clinical Trials, Inspiration, Patient Advocacy, Survivorship
Curtis Crump: Credit MD Anderson Cancer Center Curtis Crump has an amazing story to tell.  Given 6 months to live, he refused to accept that prognosis and looked elsewhere. He found a top hospital that directed him to an established clinical trial.  Although the story I am attaching says "Neuroendocrine Tumors" throughout, with that prognosis and the treatment he received (chemotherapy and immunotherapy), I'm reasonably confident he had a Neuroendocrine Carcinoma (Colon primary) or a Grade 3 Well Differentiated NET.  Nonetheless, his story is relevant to many people's experiences across the broad spectrum of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms (NENs). And if I am right in my assumption, even with a poorly differentiated type, there is the hope of a better prognosis. Wishing Curtis the very best.  Read his story below.(Please see my disclaimers…
Read More
Survival Outcomes in Metastatic Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor Patients receiving Concomitant 225Ac-DOTATATE Targeted Alpha Therapy and Capecitabine: A Real-world Scenario Management Based Long-term Outcome Study

Survival Outcomes in Metastatic Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor Patients receiving Concomitant 225Ac-DOTATATE Targeted Alpha Therapy and Capecitabine: A Real-world Scenario Management Based Long-term Outcome Study

Clinical Trials
Introduction I've written about both 225Ac-DOTATATE targeted alpha therapy (TAT) and Capecitabine before but never as a concomitant pair (combo). So, when this Indian study came up on my radar, I felt it was a useful addition to my website adding to my existing targeted alpha therapy portfolio of information.  India appears to be using more of this type of PRRT than any other country. Read more about targeted alpha therapy by clicking here or on the photo below. [caption id="attachment_12014" align="aligncenter" width="1024"] Click on the photo to read[/caption] Read more about Capecitabine (combo with Temozolomide) by clicking here or on the photo below. [caption id="attachment_33477" align="aligncenter" width="640"] Click on the photo to read[/caption] The abstract from the Indian study is posted and cited below.  Abstract Rationale: Although the short-term results…
Read More
Assessment of Clinical Response Following Atezolizumab and Bevacizumab Treatment in Patients With Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Nonrandomized Clinical Trial

Assessment of Clinical Response Following Atezolizumab and Bevacizumab Treatment in Patients With Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Nonrandomized Clinical Trial

Clinical Trials
Background Well differentiated NETs have been described as an "immunological desert" in recent years mainly due to the poor response rate data coming out of clinical trials of immunotherapy drugs.  Poorly differentiated NEC has favoured better but mainly in the more obscure types.  Which is why these data of a combo treatment containing one immunotherapy drug caught my eye. What is atezolizumab?   It's a Programmed cell death protein -1 (PD-1)/ Ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitor i.e. it's a classic immunotherapy treatment.  A drug that binds to the protein PD-L1 to help immune cells kill cancer cells better and is used to treat many different types of cancer, including cancers that express PD-L1. Atezolizumab is used alone or with other drugs to treat certain types of melanoma, hepatocellular carcinoma (a type of…
Read More
Clinical Trial: Triapine and Lutetium Lu 177 Dotatate for Neuroendocrine Tumors

Clinical Trial: Triapine and Lutetium Lu 177 Dotatate for Neuroendocrine Tumors

Clinical Trials
What is PRRT? I'm guessing most of my readers know what Peptide Receptor Radiotherapy (PRRT) is.  But for those new to this field, read more here What is Triapine? Triapine is a ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor, I.e. it helps repair DNA.  When I research this drug, I can see it is used in numerous examples of clinical trials in an anti-cancer setting alongside radiotherapy and chemotherapy, in many cancers. Triapine in NET There is currently a trial of Triapine with Lutathera (PRRT) (11 major US hospitals).  This study was testing the hypothesis that triapine is an effective radiation sensitizer that can be safely combined with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy and can improve antitumor activity of Lutetium Lu 177 Dotatate, e.g. increase the objective response rate (ORR) above that found in…
Read More
CAPTEM for Neuroendocrine Tumours

CAPTEM for Neuroendocrine Tumours

Clinical Trials
What is CAPTEM? Capecitabine is an oral drug used alone or with other drugs to treat certain types of colorectal cancer and breast cancer. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer including in combination with a second drug. Capecitabine is taken up by cancer cells and breaks down into fluorouracil, a substance that kills cancer cells. Xeloda is a type of antimetabolite. Also called Xeloda.Temozolomide is an oral drug used to treat adults with certain types of brain tumors. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer including in combination with a second drug. Temozolomide damages the cell’s DNA and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of alkylating agent. Also called Temodar.Capecitabine (brand name Xeloda) plus Temozolomide (brand…
Read More
Clinical Trial:  Dostarlimab, anti–PD-1 monoclonal antibody in Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

Clinical Trial: Dostarlimab, anti–PD-1 monoclonal antibody in Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

Clinical Trials, Treatment
Whenever I post about a new trial or study, some people get excited without understanding that these new treatments and capabilities can very often take years to come to fruition and it's also possible that clinical trials can be halted, or that national approval agencies will not approve the final product.  Please bear that in mind when reading studies/clinical trials posted on RonnyAllan.NETBackgroundFollowing the Americal Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) conference in June 2022 (ASCO is the biggest Oncology event in the world), the media widely featured the results of the Phase 2 clinical trial of the drug Dostarlimab, an anti–PD-1 monoclonal antibody. The media often looks for headline-grabbing stories and this was one of them.  One UK TV outlet said they may have found the cure for cancer, which…
Read More
Histotripsy:  A new technique which destroys cancer using soundwaves (now in Clinical Trials)

Histotripsy: A new technique which destroys cancer using soundwaves (now in Clinical Trials)

Clinical Trials, Treatment
Illustration of histotripsy technology. Image courtesy of Medicine at Michigan Magazine. A new technique that destroys cancer using soundwaves.  It also spurs the immune system to kill off any of the tumour left, scientists have revealed. The non-invasive treatment only needs to be partially effective to stop the cancer spreading.It is currently being tested on human liver cancers in the US and Europe following successful trials in rats. The team from the University of Michigan showed the non-invasive sound technology is able to prevent further spread with no evidence of recurrence or metastases in the majority of cases. The treatment, called histotripsy, noninvasively focuses ultrasound waves to mechanically destroy target tissue with millimetre precision. In many cases, the entirety of a cancerous tumour cannot be targeted directly in treatments due to…
Read More
Electronic Autoinjector for Somatuline® Autogel® / Somatuline® Depot (lanreotide)

Electronic Autoinjector for Somatuline® Autogel® / Somatuline® Depot (lanreotide)

Clinical Trials, Patient Advocacy, Treatment
Breaking News It doesn't seem that long since we got the new improved injection delivery system for the current model of Lanreotide.  I had to look at my blog articles for the announcement of that and was surprised it had already been 3 years.  It may be a shorter time period for many though, UK was near the front of that rollout.  I personally found the new injection a better experience and I know the nurses were happier too.  However, I also know there was some disappointment that the injection gauge and length were the same and therefore there was little change for many in terms of the 'experience'.  Speaking from a personal perspective, there was not sufficient change for me to consider moving to self-inject. I know (at least…
Read More
Clinical Trial: Mycapssa (octreotide capsules) for Neuroendocrine Tumours

Clinical Trial: Mycapssa (octreotide capsules) for Neuroendocrine Tumours

Clinical Trials, Treatment
The delayed-release capsules contain 20mg of octreotide. Update 14th July 2022. Amryt Receives Orphan Drug Designation from the FDA for Mycapssa® (oral octreotide) for the Treatment of Carcinoid Syndrome.  The details of Phase 3 clinical trial are still awaited but are likely to commence early 2023. The mainstay somatostatin analogues for Neuroendocrine Tumour patients are Lanreotide and Octreotide and I have blogged or mentioned them frequently, and they are probably two of the most written words in my private patient group ....... coupled with "injection" or "shot".  For years, people have talked about the need for different delivery systems including capsules and even nasal sprays.  Many patients have indicated a preference for an easier route into the system with similar efficacy.  I have been following a few of these initiatives in…
Read More
Clinical Trial: Testing the Use of Chemotherapy After Surgery for High-Risk Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

Clinical Trial: Testing the Use of Chemotherapy After Surgery for High-Risk Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

Clinical Trials, Treatment
An interesting trial centred on SW USA.   The use of CAPTEM following surgery in high-risk pancreatic NETs (G2/G3 well-differentiated).  Also includes the use of NETest at 3 time points, which is very interesting considering the recent withdrawal of Chromogranin A from US NET Guidelines.  (Read about NETest here). Randomized Phase II Trial of Postoperative Adjuvant Capecitabine and Temozolomide versus Observation in High-Risk Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (S2104) is a recently activated National Clinical Trials Network randomized phase II trial designed to compare CAPTEM chemotherapy versus observation following resection of pNETs (see Figure 2). Patients with well-differentiated grade 2 or 3 (Ki-67 up to 55%) pNETS with a Zaidi score of ≥3 who underwent resection (or ablation) for either localized disease with or without up to five liver metastases are eligible for…
Read More
Clinical Trial: Lutathera and ASTX727 in Neuroendocrine Tumours (LANTana)

Clinical Trial: Lutathera and ASTX727 in Neuroendocrine Tumours (LANTana)

Clinical Trials, Patient Advocacy, Treatment
Whenever I post about a new trial or study, some people get excited without understanding that these new treatments and capabilities can very often take years to come to fruition and it's also possible that clinical trials can be halted, or that national approval agencies will not approve the final product.  Please bear that in mind when reading studies/clinical trials posted on RonnyAllan.NET What is the aim of this clinical trial? The aim of this single location trial in Imperial College London is to determine whether pre-treatment with ASTX727 results in re-expression of SSTR2 in patients with metastatic NETs, using 68Ga-DOTA-TATE to image epigenetic modification of the SSTR2 locus allowing subsequent treatment with Lutathera(i.e. PRRT).  Patients entered into the study will receive ASTX727 orally up to 3 to 8 days…
Read More
Blog review and top 10 for 2021:  RonnyAllan.NET

Blog review and top 10 for 2021: RonnyAllan.NET

Awareness, Clinical Trials, Diet and Nutrition, General, Humour, Inspiration, Living with Neuroendocrine Cancer, Patient Advocacy, Survivorship, Treatment
I should be happy with over a quarter of a million views in 2021 but I'm not!  Like 2020, my figures are down on previous years as the pandemic seems to have changed viewing habits, not to mention my own bandwidth during this period. I created my private Facebook group not that long before the pandemic started, and I think that has been playing a part as huge chunks of my time has been taken up on that special project.  I also changed the nature and the type of posts on my "Ronny Allan" Facebook page, which led to fewer outlets for my blog posts.  Hopefully, 2022 will be a better year. However, just as I was totally astonished to have been able to accumulate a million views of my…
Read More
177Lu-DOTA-LM3 – a novel radionuclide therapy proven safe and effective to treat neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN)

177Lu-DOTA-LM3 – a novel radionuclide therapy proven safe and effective to treat neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN)

Clinical Trials, Treatment
This is all the information available and further details to follow if any is published.  Remember, this is not yet an approved treatment, nor is it widely available.  Only ever used in experimental/compassionate situations. Not even entered the formal clinical trial system. So even if there was a plan to develop and deploy it (which as far as we know there isn't), and it gained approval, it would be some years before we see it.  Whenever I post about a new trial, some people get excited without understanding that these new treatments and capabilities can very often take years to come to fruition and it's also possible that clinical trials can be halted, or that national approval agencies will not approve the final product.  Please bear that in mind when…
Read More
A Trial to Assess Efficacy and Safety of Octreotide Subcutaneous Depot (CAM2029) in Patients With GEP-NET (SORENTO)

A Trial to Assess Efficacy and Safety of Octreotide Subcutaneous Depot (CAM2029) in Patients With GEP-NET (SORENTO)

Clinical Trials, Treatment
Some of the key differences between Lanreotide and Octreotide long-acting are:1.  Octreotide long-acting needs constituting prior to administration - Lanreotide comes prefilled. 2. Octreotide long-acting is administered intra-muscular, Lanreotide is deep subcutaneous. 3.  I probably should add Octreotide LAR cannot be self-injected but Lanreotide can.  I suspect this type of delivery system may open up that possibility for Octreotide LAR. So, this clinical trial caught my eye.  A version of octreotide long-acting which is prefilled and given subcutaneously.  Plus, the manufacturers say it has a much higher bioavailability than the standard product Sandostatin LAR (bioavailability is the proportion of a drug or other substance which enters the circulation when introduced into the body and so is able to have an active effect).CAM2029 might therefore be considered a generic of Sandostatin LAR but better…
Read More
CAR-T clinical trials for Neuroendocrine Cancer

CAR-T clinical trials for Neuroendocrine Cancer

Clinical Trials, Treatment
What is CAR-T?CAR-T – chimeric antigen receptor T-cell – therapy is specifically developed for each individual patient and involves reprogramming the patient’s own immune system cells which are then used to target their cancer., i.e. it's an immunotherapy. It is a highly complex and potentially risky treatment, but it has been shown in trials to cure some patients, even those with quite advanced cancers and where other available treatments have failed.The treatment involves several steps over a number of weeks. First the patient’s blood is taken and is sent off to the manufacturer’s laboratory. Here the patient’s blood is ‘trained’ to fight the cancer cells. The CAR-T blood is then transported back to the hospital and the patient is administered with the CAR-T to treat their condition.It has not been deployed in…
Read More
In the land of small tumours, there is still a lot of work to do!

In the land of small tumours, there is still a lot of work to do!

Awareness, Clinical Trials, Patient Advocacy, Treatment
I like reading the words of Dr Mark Lewis, an Oncologist and a Neuroendocrine Tumour (NET) patient himself (with MEN1).  He always delivers with "enthusiastic vigour", a term he reduces to "brio" (which I had to google!)His article as usual sets a scene and he has form for looking back in the history of NETs. I'm sure he does this as it can often illustrate just how much clinical progress has been made since way back then. And that is the purpose of the recent article entitled "Continuing the Odyssey in the Land of Small Tumors".  He quotes from a 1987 article written by Dr Charles Moertel entitled "An Odyssey in the Land of Small Tumors" and I suspect he selected this article from Dr Moertel as he too writes…
Read More
Lutetium 177Lu-Edotreotide Versus Best Standard of Care in Well-differentiated Aggressive Grade-2 and Grade-3 GastroEnteroPancreatic NeuroEndocrine Tumors (GEP-NETs) – (COMPOSE)

Lutetium 177Lu-Edotreotide Versus Best Standard of Care in Well-differentiated Aggressive Grade-2 and Grade-3 GastroEnteroPancreatic NeuroEndocrine Tumors (GEP-NETs) – (COMPOSE)

Clinical Trials
Garching / Munich, October 27, 2022 ITM Isotope Technologies Munich SE (ITM), a leading radiopharmaceutical biotech company, today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted the company Fast Track designation for ITM-11 (n.c.a. 177Lu-edotreotide), an investigational radiopharmaceutical for the treatment of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). ITM-11 is being evaluated as a Targeted Radionuclide Therapy in two phase III clinical trials, COMPETE and COMPOSE. The FDA Fast Track is a process designed to facilitate the development and expedite the review of drugs to treat serious conditions and address an unmet medical need. The purpose is to bring new and promising medicines to patients sooner. The Fast Track designation enables ITM to have more frequent interactions with the FDA to discuss the ITM-11 development path. It also allows rolling review of the new drug application (NDA)…
Read More
New Clinical Trial – Testing Lutetium Lu 177 Dotatate in Patients With Somatostatin Receptor Positive Advanced Bronchial Neuroendocrine Tumors

New Clinical Trial – Testing Lutetium Lu 177 Dotatate in Patients With Somatostatin Receptor Positive Advanced Bronchial Neuroendocrine Tumors

Clinical Trials
When I see a trial for Gastroenteropancreatic NETs (GEPNETs), I know that BP (Bronchopulmonary) NETs (includes Lung) are not included.  When you look at the approval wording for the major treatments in use (PRRT Lutathera, Lanreotide), they appear to use the term GEPNETs making BP NETs the poor relative.  Clearly there’s highly complex reasons why NETs react differently in different parts of the body.  I can see that BP NET patients were involved in clinical trials for both of the mainstream treatments listed above.  The drug approval process is also highly complex, and I can see from the wording that functional BP NETs with carcinoid syndrome can qualify at least for somatostatin analogues (Lanreotide and Octreotide).  That is not to say BP NET patients cannot get access to these treatments, I…
Read More
The GRAIL multi-cancer early detection test study

The GRAIL multi-cancer early detection test study

Clinical Trials
  Edit 13th Aug 2021.  Major Announcement from UK.  The NHS will today launch the world’s largest trial of a revolutionary new blood test that can detect more than 50 types of cancer before symptoms appear. The first people to take part will have blood samples taken at mobile testing clinics in retail parks and other convenient community locations. The Galleri(tm) test checks for the earliest signs of cancer in the blood and the NHS-Galleri trial, the first of its kind, aims to recruit 140,000 volunteers in eight areas of England to see how well the test works in the NHS. Read more here.  "The earlier that cancer can be found, the higher the chance of successful treatment and survival. Yet, too often cancer goes undetected until it has progressed…
Read More
Neuroendocrine Tumors: Targeted Therapies – Update from NET Specialist Diane Reidy-Lagunes, MD, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center – August 2021

Neuroendocrine Tumors: Targeted Therapies – Update from NET Specialist Diane Reidy-Lagunes, MD, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center – August 2021

Clinical Trials, Patient Advocacy, Survivorship, Treatment
Background.  For those who want a quick run through of Neuroendocrine Tumors from diagnosis to selection of treatment, about the treatments themselves plus what is the Future Directions in the Management of Neuroendocrine Tumors.  There are 8 episodes, and each is around 3-5 minutes long. I personally found them very useful and in a language understandable to patients. Great job by OncLive and Dr Reidy-Lagunes!  Episode 1 - Understanding the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Neuroendocrine Tumors Diane Reidy-Lagunes, MD, provides an overview of neuroendocrine tumors, along with specific considerations for optimal diagnosis and prognostication. Understanding the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Neuroendocrine Tumors (onclive.com) Episode 2 - Neuroendocrine Tumor Pathogenesis and Molecular Testing Expert insight on the pathogenesis of neuroendocrine tumors and the best use of molecular testing to inform treatment decisions.Neuroendocrine Tumor Pathogenesis…
Read More
Every picture tells a story (point, click, read)

Every picture tells a story (point, click, read)

Awareness, Clinical Trials, Diet and Nutrition, Inspiration, Living with Neuroendocrine Cancer, Newsletters, Patient Advocacy, Survivorship, Treatment
I always try to use graphics for a number of pictures, I admit mainly to catch people's attention but also because sometimes a picture on its own tells a story or at least provides a great introduction to one. If the picture catches your eye, clicking on will take you to the text.  This post will auto update as new blogs are published. thanks for reading and sharing! Scroll, point, click, read, share! Click here and answer all questions to join my private Facebook group Share on facebook Facebook Share on twitter Twitter Share on pinterest Pinterest Share on whatsapp WhatsApp Share on email Email Thanks for reading. Ronny I’m also active on Facebook. Like my page for even more news. Help me build up my new site here –…
Read More
Clinical Trial: Survivin Long Peptide Vaccine in Treating Patients With Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

Clinical Trial: Survivin Long Peptide Vaccine in Treating Patients With Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

Clinical Trials
Share on facebook Facebook Share on twitter Twitter Share on pinterest Pinterest Share on whatsapp WhatsApp Share on email Email What are cancer vaccines? I remember seeing a comment by a NET Specialist on twitter saying, "We need vaccines".  This was in response to a tweet from another NET Specialist reporting dismal data from an immunotherapy drug for Neuroendocrine Carcinomas. In 2020/2021, the word vaccine has been used a lot, but this specialist was not inferring anti-viral treatment, he was talking about "cancer vaccines", an emerging discipline in science where vaccines act as an immunostimulant to treat cancer.  This prompted me to look around and found this trial which may be of interest to you.  However, before anyone gets too excited, this is very early days in the study of…
Read More
Neuroendocrine Tumour (VMT-𝛼-NET) programs

Neuroendocrine Tumour (VMT-𝛼-NET) programs

Clinical Trials
Update 3rd October 2022An announcement from Viewpoint Molecular Targeting indicates the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted fast track designation for the development of [212Pb]VMT-α-NET for treatment of patients with SSTR2-positive unresectable or metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) (including GEP-NETs or bronchial NETs and pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas).This does not mean the drug is approved for routine use, it just means the drug development has been given special treatment based on closer collaboration with FDA to ensure a smoother path when required.  Clearly the drug still needs to meet FDA criteria along the way.  Read the announcement here. Update 10 September 2021Viewpoint Molecular Targeting (TM) Receives FDA Clearance of Investigational New Drug Application for Phase 1 Imaging Study for VMT-a-NET for Neuroendocrine TumorsEdit:  We await the results as at 3rd October…
Read More
Dual Tracer (68Ga-DOTATATE and 18F-FDG) PET Imaging in G2 & G3 Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumours

Dual Tracer (68Ga-DOTATATE and 18F-FDG) PET Imaging in G2 & G3 Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumours

Clinical Trials
For some time now, I've been watching the development of PET scans for Neuroendocrine Neoplasms (NENs).  I use the term 'Neoplasms' because there are different strategies for well and poorly differentiated types, Neuroendocrine Tumour (NET) and Neuroendocrine Carcinoma (NEC) respectively.It's known that most NETs have somatostatin receptors which makes tumours be seen better on somatostatin receptor-based imaging e.g. 68Ga-DOTATATE or 64Cu DOTATATE, but more aggressive types tend not to have working somatostatin receptors and are better seen on regular PET, i.e. 18F-FDG PET/CT.   However, nothing in NENs is simple and there's always outliers.  This has been highlighted since the addition of a Grade 3 Well Differentiated NET into the equation.The variable clinical outcome of patients with G2 & G3 well diff Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumours (GEP NETs) makes the selection of…
Read More
A Diagnostic Imaging Study of 64Cu-SARTATE™ for Neuroendocrine Tumours

A Diagnostic Imaging Study of 64Cu-SARTATE™ for Neuroendocrine Tumours

Clinical Trials
Share on facebook Facebook Share on twitter Twitter Share on pinterest Pinterest Share on whatsapp WhatsApp Share on email Email We probably should start to use the term "Somatostatin Receptor PET" (SSTR PET) a bit more.  We got used to using the term Ga68 PET but since then we have an approved copper version known as 64Cu Dotatate (commercial brand name in US DETECTNET™).  Now we have another in the clinical trial pipeline and will add others as they come onto my radar.Ga68 Dotatate/TOC/NOC - click hereCu64 Dotatate (DetectNET) - click hereA Diagnostic Imaging Study of 64Cu-SARTATE™ Using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) on Patients With Known or Suspected NETsReference: NCT04438304Trial status: RecruitingThe purpose of this study is to assess the performance of imaging agent 64Cu-SARTATE in participants with known or suspected Gastroenteropancreatic…
Read More
Lanreotide and Keytruda – the PLANET study (NCT03043664)

Lanreotide and Keytruda – the PLANET study (NCT03043664)

Clinical Trials
Headline:  Roughly 40% of patients with advanced, progressive gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) treated with pembrolizumab (Keytruda) in combination with lanreotide (Somulatine Depot) achieved stable disease, according to results from the phase 1b/2 PLANET clinical trial presented during the 2021 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Gastrointestinal Cancer Symposium.I've written about Pembrolizumab (Keytruda) before in my general immunotherapy coverage - click here.  I did note they weren't really having much luck with Neuroendocrine Neoplasms although I do see some success (.... but not enough) in poorly differentiated carcinomas.  Well differentiated NETs remain an immunological desert.  However, this poster abstract from ASCO GI conference caught my eye.“Pembrolizumab has antitumor activity in a subset of GEP-NETs patients,” wrote the investigators. “We hypothesized that the lanreotide, by its antitumor effects and reduction of serotonin,…
Read More
Genome methylation accurately predicts neuroendocrine tumor origin – finding Neuroendocrine Neoplasms of unknown primary

Genome methylation accurately predicts neuroendocrine tumor origin – finding Neuroendocrine Neoplasms of unknown primary

Clinical Trials, Patient Advocacy
It's estimated that around 5-10% of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms (NENs) have an unknown primary - what that means is cancer cells have been found in the body but the place cancer began remains unknown.  I wrote about this issue in more depth in my article "Needle in a haystack" - you can read that here.  In that article, you will note that NET specialists through their knowledge and understanding of the behaviour of these comped tumours, can often drill down and gather various pieces of evidence to help narrow down the primary location. However, this new study would indicate they could have access to a new tool to be able to home in on a particular location.DNA methylation-based profiling is now routinely used in the diagnostic workup of brain tumors but…
Read More
Somatostatin Receptor Positive Advanced Bronchial Neuroendocrine Tumors – PRRT vs Everolimus

Somatostatin Receptor Positive Advanced Bronchial Neuroendocrine Tumors – PRRT vs Everolimus

Clinical Trials
When I see a trial for Gastroenteropancreatic NETs (GEPNETs), I know that BP (Bronchopulmonary) NETs (includes Lung) are not included.  When you look at the approval wording for the major treatments in use (PRRT Lutathera, Lanreotide), they appear to use the term GEPNETs making BP NETs the poor relative.  Clearly there's highly complex reasons why NETs react differently in different parts of the body.  I can see that BP NET patients were involved in clinical trials for both of the mainstream treatments listed above.  The drug approval process is also highly complex, and I can see from the wording that functional BP NETs with carcinoid syndrome can qualify at least for somatostatin analogues (Lanreotide and Octreotide).  That is not to say BP NET patients cannot get access to these treatments,…
Read More
Selecting patients and the Challenges of Evaluating Response to PRRT in GEPNETs: The Present and the Future

Selecting patients and the Challenges of Evaluating Response to PRRT in GEPNETs: The Present and the Future

Clinical Trials, Patient Advocacy, Treatment
Share on facebook Facebook Share on twitter Twitter Share on pinterest Pinterest Share on whatsapp WhatsApp Share on email Email Fascinating article from the Italian NET scientific community.  This article is more than just what the title says, it provides overviews on many facets of NETs including markers, scans and PRRT itself. It covers how to select patients for PRRT in the first place, i.e. who is most likely to get a good response to this treatment and then look at how to track and assess that response. The important thing I gathered from reading is that none of this is a precise science, there are too many variables.  And while this article focusses on the clinical factors, there can of course be non-clinical factors in play in different countries…
Read More
Clinical Trial: Phase II CLARINET FORTE Somatuline Autogel (Lanreotide) increased dosing frequency

Clinical Trial: Phase II CLARINET FORTE Somatuline Autogel (Lanreotide) increased dosing frequency

Clinical Trials, Treatment
CLARINET FORTE is a prospective single-arm, open-label, exploratory, international Phase II study to explore the efficacy and safety of an increased Somatuline® Autogel® (lanreotide) dosing frequency (120 mg every 14 days) in patients with metastatic or locally advanced unresectable pancreatic NETs or midgut NETs, with centrally-accessed progression within the last two years while on a standard lanreotide regimen (120 mg every 28 days) for more than 24 weeks.Data announced in September 2020 at the 2020 European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), indicated the phase 2 results support a clinically meaningful benefit to a population of patients with high unmet medical need by potentially delaying escalation to more toxic treatments. This means patients with progressive NETs are able to remain on a more tolerable first-line standard of care for longer,” said Professor…
Read More
Clinical Trial of Tidutamab in Neuroendocrine Cancer (DUET-1)

Clinical Trial of Tidutamab in Neuroendocrine Cancer (DUET-1)

Clinical Trials
UPDATE:  13th July 2022Xencor halted this clinical trial due to disappointing results.  Click here to read moreXencor, a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company developing engineered monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases, today announced that initial data from its ongoing Phase 1 dose-escalation study of tidutamab (XmAb®18087), an SSTR2 x CD3 bispecific antibody, in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) will be presented during the upcoming North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society’s 2021 Multidisciplinary NET Medical Virtual Symposium (note - it was also presented at NANETS 2020). What are monocloncal antibodies?  See here About Tidutamab Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-produced molecules engineered to serve as substitute antibodies that can restore, enhance or mimic the immune system's attack on cancer cells. They are designed to bind to antigens that are generally more numerous on…
Read More
The NETest® – a Chromogranin A replacement and more?

The NETest® – a Chromogranin A replacement and more?

Clinical Trials, Patient Advocacy
Tumour Markers GeneralFor some years the gold standard tumour marker for Neuroendocrine Neoplasms (NENs) has been and remains today, Chromogranin A (and for certain scenarios Chromogranin B and C can provide some additional clues).  Pancreastatin, which is actually a molecule of Chromogranin A, is another marker touted but appears to be limited to USA. Its main advantage is the ability to better handle the effects of Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI) use which is prevalent in the general population.  As we move to a new era of molecular/genetic tumour markers, there's a danger that NENs will be left behind, stuck with diagnostic tools not capable of meeting new demands. I see a lot of public criticism of Chromogranin A, but it's mainly directed at the problem of being skewed by the use…
Read More
SSTR PET – Ga68-DOTA-JR11 vs Ga68-DOTATATE

SSTR PET – Ga68-DOTA-JR11 vs Ga68-DOTATATE

Clinical Trials
Share on facebook Facebook Share on twitter Twitter Share on pinterest Pinterest Share on whatsapp WhatsApp Share on email Email Headline - 68Ga-DOTA-JR11 was found to detect significantly more liver lesions than 68Ga-DOTATATE; however, 68Ga-DOTATATE detected more bone lesions than 68Ga-DOTA-JR11.Although it had been in trial use for some years in Europe and elsewhere, the formal approval of 68Ga-DOTATATE has led to an increase in the development of other radionuclides, some in conjunction with therapeutic options (i.e. PRRT) making a 'theranostic' approach to diagnosing, treating and surveillance Neuroendocrine Cancer patients with somatostatin receptor positive tumours.  I also wrote last year about another option called 64Cu, something already available in Europe, in particular Denmark.In another development which has been running for some time, a Ga68 variant called 68Ga-DOTA-JR11 has been in trial…
Read More
Targeted Therapy for Neuroendocrine Cancer – Sunitinib (Sutent)

Targeted Therapy for Neuroendocrine Cancer – Sunitinib (Sutent)

Clinical Trials, Treatment
Click here to see the A to Z of Neuroendocrine Cancer What is Sunitinib (Sutent)? Manufactured by Pfizer, this is a targeted biological therapy or more accurately, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI).  You may also see it described as an anti-angiogenic agent on the basis that these tumor types are highly vascularized and show high expression of something called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a key driver of angiogenesis in neuroendocrine tumors. Because NETs are generally hypervascularized tumors, treatment with antiangiogenic drugs seems a rational approach. A complex process but in the simplest of terms, sunitinib blocks a particular enzyme and keeps tumors from making their own blood vessels, which are needed to deliver oxygen and other nutrients to help them survive and grow. In clinical trials, SUTENT was…
Read More
Targeted Therapy for Neuroendocrine Cancer – Everolimus (Afinitor)

Targeted Therapy for Neuroendocrine Cancer – Everolimus (Afinitor)

Clinical Trials, Treatment
Click picture to read the A to Z of Neuroendocrine Cancer What is Everolimus (Afinitor)? Manufactured by Novartis, this is a targeted biological therapy or more accurately, a mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor. It works by stopping some of the signals within cells that make them grow and divide. Everolimus stops a particular protein called mTOR from working properly. mTOR controls other proteins that trigger cancer cells to grow. So everolimus helps to stop the cancer growing or may slow it down.  The drug is also approved for Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) and hormone-receptor-positive advanced Breast Cancer.The drug is administered in oral form (tablet). The recommended dose for AFINITOR® (everolimus) Tablets is one 10-mg tablet once daily but lower doses of 7.5-mg tablets, 5-mg tablets, and 2.5-mg tablets are…
Read More
My interview with ITM – I’m still here!

My interview with ITM – I’m still here!

Awareness, Clinical Trials, Patient Advocacy
Share on facebook Facebook Share on twitter Twitter Share on pinterest Pinterest Share on whatsapp WhatsApp Share on email Email I was delighted to be contacted by ITM AG, a Germany based pharmaceutical company specialising in targeted radionuclide technology in precision oncology (e.g. Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy - PRRT).  The company is formally known as  ITM Isotopen Technologien München.One of their pipeline developments is 177Lu-Edotreotide / Solucin® in patients with neuroendocrine tumors of gastroenteric or pancreatic origin (GEP-NET).  The development is via the COMPETE Phase III Clinical Trial which is being conducted worldwide in 11 countries at 33 sites and is open for recruitment.  I actually wrote about this trial after attending a workshop at the annual ENETS conference in 2018.I was delighted when they wanted to interview me to…
Read More
Clinical Trial:  Lu-177 DOTATOC (PRRT) in adult subjects with Somatostatin receptor (SSTR) positive Pulmonary, Pheochromocytoma, Paraganglioma,  Unknown primary, and Thymic Neuroendocrine Tumors

Clinical Trial: Lu-177 DOTATOC (PRRT) in adult subjects with Somatostatin receptor (SSTR) positive Pulmonary, Pheochromocytoma, Paraganglioma,  Unknown primary, and Thymic Neuroendocrine Tumors

Clinical Trials
Excellent news for those who don't have Gastroenteropancreatic NETs (GEP-NETs). A trial of PRRT is being set-up for the less common types of NET including those with an unknown primary.  Using the DOTATOC radionuclide rather than the Lutathera model of using DOTATATE, this trial will cater for Pulmonary, Pheochromoctyoma, Paraganlioma, Unknown Primary and Thymic Neuroendocrine Tumours.Excel Diagnostics and Nuclear Oncology Center (EDNOC) announced today that its physician sponsored Investigational New Drug (IND) application to evaluate safety and efficacy of Lu-177 DOTATOC in adult subjects with Somatostatin receptor (SSTR)  expressing Pulmonary, Pheochromocytoma, Paraganglioma, Unknown primary, and Thymic Neuroendocrine Tumors (PUT-NET),  has received approval to proceed by USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and also charge authorization has been granted (IND#143631, NCT04276597). This IND is anticipated to start enrolling patients by early…
Read More
Oral Octreotide using RaniPill™

Oral Octreotide using RaniPill™

Clinical Trials
Credit: Rani Therapeutics Update 21st March 2022 Preclinical data demonstrates new RaniPill™ HC (High Capacity) delivered 500%-plus higher payloads than current RaniPill™ capsule. Up to 20mg payload has the potential to unlock more than 50 additional biologics for internal development. Update 4th May 2021 According to Fierce Biotech, Rani Therapeutics has secured $69 million in new funding to move forward with the manufacturing and clinical testing of its “robotic pill”—a small, swallowable capsule that promises to shepherd more delicate drugs past the stomach before releasing them into the bloodstream. The pill aims to make it easier for a patient to take therapies that typically require an injection or infusion, including treatments for diabetes, arthritis and other diseases. Currently, the Fierce 15 winner is working with drugmakers Novartis and Takeda to…
Read More
NETDetect: Earlier diagnosis of Neuroendocrine Cancer gets a boost

NETDetect: Earlier diagnosis of Neuroendocrine Cancer gets a boost

Clinical Trials
[caption id="attachment_16474" width="640" align="aligncenter"] Dr Eugene Woltering - NET Specialist[/caption] It's well known that Neuroendocrine Cancer is difficult to detect and as a consequence, many people are not diagnosed until late stages. The difficulty in detection is not just focussed on the complexity of the disease but also the lack of understanding within the medical community who don't always see sufficient evidence to refer the person on to receive expensive testing and in some cases confirmatory and expensive imaging which may not show small tumours. Currently, there's no screening test for Neuroendocrine Cancer for the simple fact that it's not a high population disease and it's not a known killer. This development from well known NET Specialist Dr Eugene Woltering could help bridge that gap although some suspicion to utilise…
Read More
Clinical Trials – PEN-221 for Neuroendocrine Cancer

Clinical Trials – PEN-221 for Neuroendocrine Cancer

Clinical Trials
What is PEN-221?Tarveda Therapeutics is discovering and developing a new class of potent and selective precision oncology medicines for the treatment of patients with various solid tumor malignancies. Their strategy includes developing their own proprietary Pentarin miniature conjugates to enhance the effectiveness of promising anti-cancer payloads that have struggled without their selective targeting to solid tumors.  These medicines are known as 'Pentarins'. PEN-221 is the lead candidate 'Pentarin' aimed at Neuroendocrine Cancer - PEN-221.Somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) is frequently overexpressed on several types of solid tumors, including neuroendocrine tumors and small-cell lung cancer. Peptide agonists of SSTR2 are rapidly internalized upon binding to the receptor and linking a toxic payload to an SSTR2 agonist is a potential method to kill SSTR2-expressing tumor cells. PEN-221 is a conjugate consisting of microtubule-targeting…
Read More