Neuroendocrine Cancer:  Glossary of Terms

Neuroendocrine Cancer: Glossary of Terms

Awareness, Clinical Trials, Diet and Nutrition, Living with Neuroendocrine Cancer, Patient Advocacy, Survivorship, Treatment
Welcome to my Neuroendocrine Cancer terms and definitions list providing a source of meanings for acronyms and medical terms, all sourced from top Neuroendocrine Cancer and general cancer sites. How to use this list:1. If your term begins with an A, click on A to find all terms beginning with A.  Select your term from the list.2. For numerical terms, please click on the hashtag (#) symbol in the A to Z strip.3. The term definition including acronym or abbreviation will be given in full along with any of my published articles containing that term as long as I have tagged it on my website to display in the list. Please note I'm constantly working on the repository to clean up all definitions, adding and removing links where necessary, and ensuring all definitions…
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Neuroendocrine Cancer: At least 50 shades of grey

Neuroendocrine Cancer: At least 50 shades of grey

Awareness, Patient Advocacy
If you read any authoritative source on this cancer, it will normally begin with "Neuroendocrine Neoplasms (NENs) are heterogeneous tumours .............".  The term heterogeneous means diverse in character or content; or a structure with dissimilar components or elements.  This is not surprising as these tumours are found in Neuroendocrine cells throughout the vast majority of the human anatomy.  And yet, when you look at many hospital/healthcare sites, advocate organisation sites, and cancer information sources not maintained by Neuroendocrine Cancer scientists or specialists, you might start to think there is just one big type of NET and only one syndrome. Once again, this is partly related to the lingering use of the term Carcinoid. Even within the community, so many people make blanket statements about Neuroendocrine Cancer which are misleading, e.g."they're…
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Every picture tells a story (point, click, read)

Every picture tells a story (point, click, read)

Awareness, Clinical Trials, Diet and Nutrition, Inspiration, Living with Neuroendocrine Cancer, Newsletters, Patient Advocacy, Survivorship, Treatment
I always try to use graphics for a number of pictures, I admit mainly to catch people's attention but also because sometimes a picture on its own tells a story or at least provides a great introduction to one. If the picture catches your eye, clicking on will take you to the text.  This post will auto update as new blogs are published. thanks for reading and sharing! Scroll, point, click, read, share! Click here and answer all questions to join my private Facebook group Share on facebook Facebook Share on twitter Twitter Share on pinterest Pinterest Share on whatsapp WhatsApp Share on email Email Thanks for reading. Ronny I’m also active on Facebook. Like my page for even more news. Help me build up my new site here –…
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Early diagnosis of late stage cancer!

Early diagnosis of late stage cancer!

Awareness
Share on facebook Facebook Share on twitter Twitter Share on pinterest Pinterest Share on whatsapp WhatsApp Share on email Email OPINION: What a strange title for a cancer blog post!   However, what a strange cancer I have.  Let me explain - I was really confused in 2010 as to how I could suddenly become a stage 4 Neuroendocrine Cancer patient even though I didn't feel ill enough to see a doctor.  To cut a long story short, you can read about me here."The cancer has been growing for years"One of the common stories I hear from other patients is they were told their cancer had been growing for some years, up to 10/11/12 in most cases. I'm fairly certain my surgeon once said something similar.  Clearly doctors are 'guesstimating' so these…
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Serotonin – it’s a no-brainer!

Serotonin – it’s a no-brainer!

Patient Advocacy
OPINIONThere is constant discussion about the effects of serotonin-producing tumours and issues of depression, anxiety, and 'rage'. However, it's a really complex issue for laypeople and I have no intention of trying to resolve it in this article. However, it's clear to me from listening and reading these discussions in patient forums for many years, that most of the discussion appears to be based on years of unsubstantiated and unmoderated debate inside patient forums without professional input.  This is not an attempt to bash patient leaders and forum administrators, because a full understanding of these issues needs a much wider moderation. I've spent a considerable time researching and analysing what science is known and I can tell you now that the behaviour of serotonin in the human body is not…
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Flower power and the happy hormones

Flower power and the happy hormones

Inspiration, Living with Neuroendocrine Cancer
A memory from 5 years ago is this sunflower which I planted with my own hands, and it grew taller than me (not difficult), even taller than my garden fence (more difficult).  Of course, I have to mention my wife Chris because she does infinitely more gardening than I do, and she would have nurtured the sunflower from start to finish after I planted it.  Nonetheless, I still felt a remarkably close association with the outcome! My most liked Facebook posts in 2020 (the year of COVID) related to plant and forest pictures and there is a reason flowers proved to be more popular than my other posts. Flowers, particularly with vibrant colour, stimulate our happiness hormones, including serotonin. Now, serotonin has a bad press in the Neuroendocrine Cancer world,…
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Clinical Trial: Treatment of IBS with diarrhoea – titrated ondansetron (TRITON)

Clinical Trial: Treatment of IBS with diarrhoea – titrated ondansetron (TRITON)

Clinical Trials
I was never diagnosed with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) but sometimes I feel like I now have it.  I know many others feel the same way.  But when I look at the alternatives, I can't help thinking it's a small price to pay given that one of them might be a slow degrading quality of life until shuffling off  this mortal coil. If I had the choice again, I would still take the surgery. Before the article continues, let me be clear - I'm not suggesting this is a potential treatment for NET patients with post abdominal surgery side effects or side effects of any other treatment, nor am I suggesting it's a potential treatment for those with carcinoid syndrome diarrhea.  I publish it because there is a connection to…
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Neuroendocrine Cancer Hormonal Syndromes – Clinical Esoterica

Neuroendocrine Cancer Hormonal Syndromes – Clinical Esoterica

Awareness
One of the key awareness messages for Neuroendocrine Cancer is the hormonal syndromes that can often accompany the diagnosis for many people.  As it's a difficult disease to diagnose, many people struggle with these syndromes for some time before formal diagnosis of Neuroendocrine Cancer.  Some continue to struggle after. Neuroendocrine Cancer can often be uncannily quiet, but the tumours can be 'functional' and over-secrete certain hormones to add or introduce symptoms that mimic many other diseases or conditions, such as Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Menopause, Heart disease and Asthma.   In addition to common symptoms of flushing and diarrhea, others include generally feeling weak, fatigued, pain, agitated, anxious, dizzy, nauseous, acid reflux, skin irritation, anaemic, weight loss, weight gain, low blood sugar, high blood sugar, heart palpitations, headaches, sweating, high blood…
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Neuroendocrine Cancer: Fibrosis – an unsolved mystery?

Neuroendocrine Cancer: Fibrosis – an unsolved mystery?

Living with Neuroendocrine Cancer, Treatment
What happened to me?Since I was diagnosed in 2010, I've always known I've had a fibrosis issue in the retroperitoneal area, as it was actually identified on my very first CT scan, which triggered my diagnosis.  Here's how the radiologist described it - "There is a rind of abnormal tissue surrounding the aorta extending distally from below the renal vessels. This measures up to 15mm in thickness".  He went on to describe that "almost certainly malignant".  The second and third scans would go on to describe as "retroperitoneal fibrosis" and "a plaque-like substance".  Interestingly the fibrosis itself does not appear to 'light up' on nuclear scans indicating it was not cancerous (see below).I really didn't know what to make of this issue at diagnosis, although I did know the aorta…
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Living with Neuroendocrine Cancer – the 7 Year Itch

Living with Neuroendocrine Cancer – the 7 Year Itch

Awareness, Diet and Nutrition, Living with Neuroendocrine Cancer, Patient Advocacy, Treatment
Share on facebook Facebook Share on twitter Twitter Share on pinterest Pinterest Share on whatsapp WhatsApp Share on email Email I quite like the Facebook memory thing. This morning I got a reminder of a post I made from 7 years ago whilst I was in hospital recovering from my 9 Nov surgery.  It had taken 12 days for me to feel strong enough to venture onto social media with a simple message "I'm feeling perkier".  For those not familiar with English localisms, it just means lively, spirited, bright, sunny, cheerful, animated, upbeat, buoyant, bubbly, cheery, bouncy, genial, jaunty, chirpy, sprightly, vivacious, in fine fettle, full of beans, bright-eyed and bushy-tailed.  I guess I met some of these descriptors most of the time! I had gotten through the worst and…
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NETwork with Ronny © – Community Newsletter SEPTEMBER 2017

NETwork with Ronny © – Community Newsletter SEPTEMBER 2017

Newsletters
Hi NETworkers! Welcome to my monthly 'Community' newsletter. This is September 2017's monthly summary of Ronny Allan's Community news, views and ICYMI (in case you missed it!). NET News The following news items may be of interest:   The European Commission (EC) approved Lu-177 Lutathera (PRRT) on 28 Sep.  This is the first time the drug has ever been approved, despite being in use for  over 10 years.  In USA, the FDA gave a date of 28 Jan 2018 for its decision to approve or not.  Read more here.   The European Commission approved the use of XERMELO (telotristat ethyl) for use in Carcinoid Syndrome diarrhea not adequately controlled by somatostatin analogues. Read more here.   The US FDA approved an add-on indication for Lanreotide (Somatuline) for treatment of carcinoid syndrome, adding…
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NETwork with Ronny © – Community Newsletter AUGUST 2017

NETwork with Ronny © – Community Newsletter AUGUST 2017

Newsletters
[caption id="attachment_10710" align="aligncenter" width="500"] background scene from my Instagram account - to see more check out the newsletter. Photo credit to Nick Lucas[/caption] Hi NETworkers! Welcome to my monthly 'Community' newsletter. This is August 2017's monthly summary of Ronny Allan's Community news, views and ICYMI (in case you missed it!). NET News The following news items may be of interest: PRRT takes a step forward to being formally approved in USA. FDA acknowledges receipt of revised application for approval.  Click here. However, in UK, there is a threat that PRRT won't be approved despite a positive recommendation by the scientific committee of the European Medicines Agency (EMA).  Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA), the manufacturers of Lu-177 Lutathera for use on PRRT, has had to respond to the UK's drug approver NICE's negative recommendation. …
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NETwork with Ronny © – Community Newsletter JULY 2017

NETwork with Ronny © – Community Newsletter JULY 2017

Newsletters
  Hi NETworkers! Welcome to my monthly 'Community' newsletter. This is July 2017's monthly summary of Ronny Allan's Community news, views and ICYMI (in case you missed it!).  July 26th was the 'Cancerversary' of my diagnosis - I'm still here after 7 years and I'm apparently a veritable newbie!  There's some great comments on my 'I'm Still Here' post - check them out ... 'click here' NET News The following news items may be of interest: Telotristat Ethyl (Xermelo) takes a step forward to being approved in Europe. Click here. PRRT takes a step forward to being approved in USA.  Click here. Ipsen launches the German version of 'Living with NETs' website.  Click here. What's happening on my Blog Site?   As per above, a quiet month.  Due to the vagaries of…
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NETwork with Ronny © – Community Newsletter JUNE 2017

NETwork with Ronny © – Community Newsletter JUNE 2017

Newsletters
  Hi NETworkers! Welcome to my monthly 'Community' newsletter. This is June 2017's monthly summary of Ronny Allan's Community news, views and ICYMI (in case you missed it!). NET News The following news items may be of interest: NETs in the UK National News.  Great publicity.  Featuring NET Patient Foundation.  Click here. Personalised PRRT is highlighted.  Click here. Everolimus and Sunitinib. In England, NICE approves Everolimus (Afinitor) and Sunitinib (Sutent). Read more by clicking here. Videos from LACNETS.  I've not watched them all yet due to holiday but they are always great!  Click here. PRRT.  News of a PRRT trial being set up for Inoperable Pheochromocytoma/ Paraganglioma. Not yet recruiting but read more here. Immunotherapy.  Merkel Cell Carcinoma is already benefiting from an FDA approved drug with another pending.  Check out…
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Don’t believe the hype – Neuroendocrine Cancer Myths debunked

Don’t believe the hype – Neuroendocrine Cancer Myths debunked

Awareness, Diet and Nutrition, Inspiration, Living with Neuroendocrine Cancer, Patient Advocacy, Survivorship, Treatment
OPINIONThere's a lot of inaccurate and out of date information out there. Some is just a lack of understanding, some caused by out of date websites, often as a result of patient forum myth spreading. Some can only be described as propaganda. Some of it even comes from doctors and NET advocate organisations. Myth 1: All Neuroendocrine Tumours are benignNot true. By any scientific definition, the word 'tumour' means 'an abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should. Tumours may be benign (not cancerous), or malignant (cancerous)'. Sure, some NETs will be benign but a tumours which spreads away from the primary site cannot be benign by any scientific definition. However, since the World Health Organisation (WHO) 2010 classification…
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Does your body now have an extra organ? The MESENTERY

Does your body now have an extra organ? The MESENTERY

Living with Neuroendocrine Cancer
One of the very first words I heard at diagnosis was the word "Mesentery".  In the news today is the announcement that is now might just be a new organ following accepted findings from research conducted in the University of Limerick Ireland. I always knew it was something which held the small and large intestines in place within the abdomen so like many others, I just thought it was some kind of membrane type structure and I also knew there was some kind of interaction with the peritoneum, another word which I was to become familiar with. This is an important area for NET patients as many will have mesenteric involvement in their disease.  I've read reports of a primary mesenteric tumour although it's mainly a site for secondary disease (metastasis).  It's no surprise…
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Neuroendocrine – don’t let it be a Crisis

Neuroendocrine – don’t let it be a Crisis

Awareness, Living with Neuroendocrine Cancer, Patient Advocacy, Treatment
Update 15th November 2021.   A study presented at NANETS 2021 produced data to suggest the causes and treatment for carcinoid crisis have been wrong and that a new model is required.  Read the article here or by clicking on the picture.Author's notes:  This is probably a controversial conclusion in some circles and it's worth pointing out that so-called 'carcinoid crisis' isn't going away, just the need for time-consuming and expensive, and apparently ineffective according to the study, perioperative protection.  And the study also noted that medication to treat complications was still required.  I don't believe we should immediately dismiss this conclusion as one of the authors is a 'big hitter' NET Specialist surgeon (Dr Rodney Pommier) whose job is to keep patients safe on the operating table.However, it's the second…
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Happy Thanksgiving

Happy Thanksgiving

Diet and Nutrition, Living with Neuroendocrine Cancer
I have been posting this every year on last Thursday in November and I kept forgetting that other countries other than USA (and Territories of the United States) also do Thanksgiving but mostly on different dates. This includes (but is probably not limited to): Canada, Brazil, Grenada, Liberia, Saint Lucia, Leiden (Netherlands), Norfolk Island (Australia).   I hope you all had/have a great Thanksgiving Day! Turkey and Sleep Now ........ I hate to stereotype but I guess a lot of you might be eating turkeyon Thanksgiving Day?  No Thanksgiving is complete without a turkey at the table (... so I'm told!).  And also, a nap right after it’s eaten..... right? As you know I like to analyse such things ...... Apparently, the meat has a bad reputation for making eaters sleepy, but…
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Neuroendocrine Cancer – Exciting Times Ahead!  

Neuroendocrine Cancer – Exciting Times Ahead!  

Inspiration, Survivorship, Treatment
In the last 12-24 months, there seems to have been announcement after announcement of new and/or upgraded/enhanced diagnostics and treatment types for Neuroendocrine Cancer.  Scans, radionuclide therapies, combination therapies, somatostatin analogues, biological therapies, etc.  Some of the announcements are just expansions of existing therapies having been approved in new (but significant) regions. Compared to some other cancers, even those which hit the headlines often, we appear to be doing not too badly.  However, the pressure needs to stay on, all patients need access to the best diagnostics and treatments for them; and at the requisite time.  There's even more in the pipeline and I'm hoping to continue to bring you news of new stuff as I have been doing for the last year. Some of these new diagnostics and treatments will benefit eligible patients who are…
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Neuroendocrine Cancer – tumour markers and hormone levels

Neuroendocrine Cancer – tumour markers and hormone levels

Patient Advocacy
BackgroundI think most people have had a form of medical testing at some point in their life, i.e. the sampling and testing of blood, urine, saliva, stool or body tissue. In a nutshell, the medical staff are just measuring the content of a 'substance' and then taking a view whether this is normal or not based on pre-determined ranges. These tests are normally done as a physician's reaction to symptom presentation or maintenance/surveillance of an existing diagnosed condition. Sometimes, abnormal results will lead to more specialist tests.In cancer, these tests are frequently called 'markers'. Most tumour markers are made by normal cells as well as by cancer cells; however, they are produced at much higher levels in cancerous conditions. These substances can be found in the blood, urine, stool, tumour tissue,…
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Neuroendocrine Cancer – the diarrhea jigsaw

Neuroendocrine Cancer – the diarrhea jigsaw

Diet and Nutrition, Living with Neuroendocrine Cancer, Patient Advocacy, Survivorship, Treatment
Diarrhea can be a symptom of many conditions, but it is particularly key in Neuroendocrine Tumour (NET) Syndromes and types, in particular, Carcinoid Syndrome but also in those associated with various other NET types such as VIPoma, PPoma, Gastrinoma, Somatostatinoma, Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.Secondly, it can be a key consequence (side effect) of the treatment for Neuroendocrine Tumours and Carcinomas, in particular following surgery where various bits of the gastrointestinal tract are excised to remove and/or debulk tumour load.There are other reasons that might be causing or contributing, including (but not limited to) endocrine problems such as hyperthryoidism, mastocytosis or Addison's disease (which may be secondary illnesses in those with NETs). It's also possible that 'non-sydromic' issues such as stress and diet are contributing. It could be caused by other things…
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Serotonin – the NET effect

Serotonin – the NET effect

Diet and Nutrition, Living with Neuroendocrine Cancer, Patient Advocacy
picture shows an actual serotonin receptor BackgroundI'd never heard of Serotonin until I was diagnosed with Neuroendocrine Cancer in 2010. It is frequently discussed, often with contrasting views from the respondents. One common assumption/question is that it is responsible for many things that can go wrong with Neuroendocrine Cancer patients who have serotonin-producing tumours. To a certain extent, that's true but statement such as "it's the hormones" is an easy assumption to make; or an easy answer to give in response to a complex set of circumstances. It's difficult to get a definitive answer and the science behind the behaviour of our hormones isn't really 100% tied down - the human body is extremely complex.You may see serotonin referred to as a 'neurotransmitter', a 'chemical' and a 'hormone' - this…
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Neuroendocrine Cancer Nutrition Series Part 4 – Amines: Food for Thought?

Neuroendocrine Cancer Nutrition Series Part 4 – Amines: Food for Thought?

Diet and Nutrition, Living with Neuroendocrine Cancer, Patient Advocacy, Survivorship
reviewed and updated 12th Feb 2022Background.Nutrition is an important subject for many cancers, but it can be particularly important for many Neuroendocrine Cancer patients. When I started writing my nutrition series (I listed the other parts below), I said that my intention is not to tell you what to eat, even though that might be a challenge for many, and this theme continues. The issue with Nutrition and Diet, in general, is that it's very individual and what works for one may not work for another.I like to focus on why such things might have an effect - patients can then experiment and see what works for them. Sometimes very few changes are required and settling on a diet that works for you is the optimum solution. p.s. Not everyone has…
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Telotristat Ethyl (XERMELO®) – an oral treatment for Carcinoid Syndrome Diarrhea not adequately controlled by Somatostatin Analogues

Telotristat Ethyl (XERMELO®) – an oral treatment for Carcinoid Syndrome Diarrhea not adequately controlled by Somatostatin Analogues

Treatment
What is Telotristat Ethyl?Telotristat Ethyl is a significant introduction to the treatment of Carcinoid Syndrome diarrhea. It's the first addition to the standard of care in more than 16 years and the first time an oral syndrome treatment has been developed.  The drug was previously known as Telotristat Etiprate but was changed to Ethyl in Oct 2016. 'Etiprate' was previously a truncation of 'ethyl hippurate'.  The brand name is XERMELO® 4th April 2022 updateSERB is pleased to announce it has acquired the rights from Ipsen to commercialize Xermelo® (telotristat ethyl) in Europe and other countries outside the US and Japan.  Xermelo® will be commercially available from SERB outside the US and Japan starting in July 2022.   The announcement appears to infer that SERB are working with BTG Specialty Pharmaceuticals to complete this task. (SERB…
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I bet my flush beats yours?

I bet my flush beats yours?

Awareness, Living with Neuroendocrine Cancer, Patient Advocacy, Treatment
Neuroendocrine Tumours (NETs) can sometimes present with one or more vague symptoms which occasionally results in a lengthy diagnostic phase for some.  Sure, there can be issues with doctor experience and knowledge that can add to the problem. However, some people do present with multiple vague and confusing symptoms and some people have comorbidities that have similar symptoms.  Textbook diagnostics just don't make sense, sometimes even when the doctor suspects a NET i.e. classic symptoms of 'something' but with negative markers for NETs. Clearly, those are extreme cases and just like other complex diseases, many diagnoses of NET can be extremely challenging.  Even for an experienced doctor, it can be a difficult jigsaw! Most types of NET can have associated 'syndrome' i.e. the tumours are 'functional' and this is normally (but not…
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Neuroendocrine Cancer – don’t break my heart!

Neuroendocrine Cancer – don’t break my heart!

Awareness, Living with Neuroendocrine Cancer, Survivorship, Treatment
Neuroendocrine Cancer has certain unique features whereby tumours can produce one or more symptoms which are known collectively as a syndrome.  Neuroendocrine Tumours secreting excess amounts of serotonin, can be accompanied by Carcinoid Syndrome which if not diagnosed and treated early enough, can lead to an additional complication known as Hedinger Syndrome (often known as Carcinoid Heart Disease (CHD)). However, very late diagnoses can present with CHD already in place.Excess serotonin, a hormone released by NETs into the bloodstream seems to be the prime and lead suspect for causing thick ‘plaques’ or fibrosis tissue within the heart muscle and damage to (mainly) the tricuspid and pulmonary valves on the right side of the heart which can become ‘tightly narrowed’ or ‘leaky’.  It's very similar to the reasons for mesenteric and peritoneal fibrosis…
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Carcinoid vs Neuroendocrine

Carcinoid vs Neuroendocrine

Awareness, Patient Advocacy
OPINIONThere's a constant debate regarding the validity of the term 'Carcinoid'.  I've posted about this a few times and as far as I know, the debate has been raging for some years.EDIT MARCH 2022.  The latest classification system for Lung Neuroendocrine Neoplasms (NEN) confirms the word "carcinoid" is now a choice - the WHO Lung Committee bottled it.  I made my choice some years ago, I hope others follow suit.  Read more about changes to Lung NEN by clicking here. EDIT APRIL 2020.  The latest classification system for Neuroendocrine Neoplasms confirms the word "carcinoid" no longer forms part of the terminology used in Digestive System tumours (effectively removing the term from GEP NETs) - read more - click hereEdit May 2020.  So, what about other areas not included in GEPNETs above? Please note there…
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Neuroendocrine Cancer – Horrible Hormones

Neuroendocrine Cancer – Horrible Hormones

Patient Advocacy
Hormonal imbalances are quite common in many conditions including day to day stuff. With Neuroendocrine Cancer, it can be a real challenge both at diagnostic and maintenance phases.  In addition to the cancer angle, there's some strange stuff going on, inexplicable, frightening for the patient, an unwanted ingredient causing chaos!Until I was diagnosed with metastatic Neuroendocrine Cancer, I didn't have a clue about hormones - it's one of those things you just take for granted. However, hormones are vital to human health (male and female) and it's only when things go wrong you suddenly appreciate how important they are.  Hormones are involved in many conditions, not just an issue with Neuroendocrine Tumours (NETs) but the presence of over-secreting hormones (often called peptides throughout) is useful to aid a diagnosis, albeit…
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